Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]


Annual, glandular, sticky, scented
Stem erect, much-branched
Leaves simple, 1–3-pinnately toothed to dissected; lower cauline leaves opposite, petioled; upper leaves alternate, becoming smaller, sessile, clasping; petioles generally narrowly winged, ciliate
Inflorescence terminal or axillary; pedicels thread-like, elongate in fruit
Flower: calyx < half-fused, bell-shaped, glandular, lobes oblong to spoon-shaped, ciliate; corolla bell-shaped, generally > calyx, with V-shaped transverse fold between each pair of filaments below throat; stamens included, equal, equally attached; ovary chamber 1 (or appearing 5 from complex, enlarged placenta), ovules borne on both sides of placenta, style 1, stigmas 2
Fruit ovoid to spheric, bristly
Seeds 5–15
Species in genus: 2 species: sw US
Etymology: (Greek: well hidden, from seeds)
Reference: [Constance 1938 Lloydia 1:143–152]


E. micrantha (Torr.) A. Heller

Stem weak, < 3 dm, generally with stalked glands
Leaves: lower 1–5 cm, < 2 cm wide, petiole short, widened to clasping base, blade oblong or ovate, deeply pinnately 7–9-lobed, lobes oblong or oblanceolate, straight or sickle-shaped, entire or few-toothed; upper leaves greatly reduced, lobed, toothed or entire
Inflorescence: flowers 4–12 per branch; pedicels generally erect in fruit
Flower: calyx 2–5 mm, generally black-glandular; corolla 2–4 mm, white or blue-purple, tube yellow; style 1–2 mm
Fruit 2–3 mm wide, < calyx
Seeds 7–15, oblong, becoming incurved, worm-like, black or dark-brown, wrinkled
Chromosomes: n=6,12
Ecology: Canyons, hillsides, rocky crevices, washes, slopes
Elevation: 60–2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
Distribution outside California: to Nevada, Utah, Texas, Mexico
Flowering time: Mar–Jun

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