Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



John M. Tucker

Shrub or tree, monoecious, deciduous or evergreen
Leaves simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous
Staminate inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike; flowers many
Pistillate inflorescence 1–few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre in fruit generally cup-like or lobed and bur-like, bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric
Staminate flower: sepals generally 5–6, minute; petals 0; stamens 4–12+
Pistillate flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3
Fruit: acorn (nut subtended by scaly, cup-like involucre) or 1–3 nuts subtended by spiny, bur-like involucre; nut maturing in 1–2 years
Seed generally 1
Genera in family: 7 genera, ± 900 species: generally n hemisphere. Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus ), cork (Q. suber ), food (Castanea , chestnut).



Evergreen or deciduous
Leaf: stipules small, generally early deciduous
Staminate inflorescences: catkins, 1–several, slender, on proximal part of twig
Pistillate inflorescence axillary among upper leaves, short-stalked; flower generally 1
Staminate flower: calyx 4–6-lobed, minute; stamens 4–10
Pistillate flower: calyx minute, generally 6-lobed; ovary enclosed by involucre
Fruit: acorn, maturing in 1–2 years; nut enclosed by cup-like involucre with thin or tubercled scales
Chromosomes: 2n=24 for all reports
Species in genus: ± 600 species: n hemisphere, to n South America, India
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for oak)
Many more hybrids have been named but are not included here. Reproduction of many species declining.


Q. garryana Hook.


Tree 8–20 m or shrub 1–5 m, deciduous; trunk bark thin, becoming widely ridged, scaly, grayish; twigs short-hairy, becoming glabrous, reddish brown
Leaf 5–15 cm; petiole 5–25 mm; blade elliptic to obovate, tip obtuse to rounded, margin deeply 5–7-lobed, lobes entire or 2-toothed, upper surface shiny, dark green, lower surface short-hairy, dull, light green
Fruit maturing in 1 year; cup 12–25 mm wide, 4–9 mm deep, cup- to bowl-shaped, scales ± flat to slightly tubercled; nut 20–30 mm, ± ovoid to subspheric, tip rounded, shell glabrous inside
Ecology: Slopes, woodland, mixed-evergreen or conifer forest
Elevation: 300–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Francisco Bay Area, ne Western Transverse Ranges (Liebre Mtn)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia


var. breweri (Engelm.) Jeps.

Shrub 1–5 m, spreading
Stem: terminal buds 3–5 mm
Leaf: petiole 5–20 mm; blade 4–9 cm
Ecology: Slopes, mixed-evergreen or conifer forest
Elevation: 600–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, ne Western Transverse Ranges (Liebre Mtn)
Distribution outside California: to Oregon
Synonyms: var. semota Jeps
Hybridizes with Q. sadleriana.
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17 &IRR or part SHD: 1, 2, 3, 7, , 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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