Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual to tree
Leaves generally compound, alternate, stipuled; leaflets generally entire
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; flowers sometime 1–2 in axils
Flowers generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium generally flat or cup-like; sepals generally 5, fused; petals generally 5, free, or the 2 lower ± fused; stamens 1–many, often 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1
Fruit: legume, sometimes including a stalk-like base above receptacle, dehiscent, or indehiscent and breaking into 1-seeded segments, or indehiscent, 1-seeded, and achene-like
Seeds 1–several, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth
Genera in family: ± 650 genera, 18,000 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture and most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis , peanut; Glycine , soybean; Phaseolus , beans; Medicago ; Trifolium ; and many orns
Reference: [Polhill & Raven (eds) 1981 Advances in legume systematics; Allen & Allen 1981 Leguminosae]
Family description and key to genera by Duane Isely.



Duane Isely

Annual or perennial herb, unarmed
Leaves generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole; leaflets generally 3, sometimes 5–9, ± serrate or dentate
Inflorescence: raceme (often umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, generally many-flowered, often involucred, generally peduncled; flowers bracted or not
Flower generally spreading to erect, often becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, sometimes yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free
Fruit generally indehiscent, but often breaking, short, plump, generally included in corolla; base often stalk-like
Seeds 1–6
Etymology: (Latin: 3 leaves)
Reference: [Gillett 1980 Can J Bot 58:1425–1558; Zohary & Heller 1984 Genus Trifolium]


T. wormskioldii Lehm.

Perennial, cespitose or not, glabrous
Stem decumbent or ascending
Leaves generally basal; lower stipules bristle-tipped; upper stipules wide, toothed or sharply lobed; leaflets 1–3 cm, narrowly elliptic to widely ovate
Inflorescence head-like, included or exserted from leaves, 2–3 cm wide; involucre wheel-like, segments or lobes many
Flower: calyx 7–11 mm, lobes tapered, tips bristled; corolla 12–16 mm, pink-purple or magenta, tip white
Fruit: stalk-like base 0–1 mm
Seeds 2–4
Chromosomes: 2n=16,32
Ecology: Beaches to mtn meadows, ridges, generally open moist or marshy places
Elevation: < 3200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Wyoming, New Mexico, Mexico
Flowering time: May–Oct
The only involucred per sp. in Pacific coast states; including matted, rhizomed form (dry coastal sands); lush, long-stemmed form (lower to middle elevations); slender, often tiny form (middle to higher elevations)
Horticultural information: IRR or WET, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17.

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