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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Grady L. Webster, except as specified

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, vine, monoecious or dioecious
Stem generally branched, sometimes fleshy or spiny
Leaves generally simple, alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled; blade entire, toothed, or palmately lobed
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike; flowers sometimes in clusters (dense, enclosed by involucre, flower-like in Chamaesyce, Euphorbia ), terminal or axillary
Flower unisexual, ± radial; sepals generally 3–5, free or fused; petals generally 0; stamens 1–many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers 1–4, styles free or fused, simple or lobed
Fruit: generally capsule
Seeds 1–2 per chamber; seed scar appendage sometimes present, pad- to dome-like
Genera in family: 300 genera, 7500 species: ± worldwide especially tropical; some cultivated (Aleurites , tung oil; Euphorbia subsp.; Hevea , rubber; Ricinus )
Reference: [Webster 1967 J Arnold Arbor 48:303–430]
Many species ± highly TOXIC.



Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (Greek: solitary fruit)
Recent taxonomic note: *This genus now treated as Croton. [Webster 1992 Novon 2:269–273]


E. setigerus (Hook.) Benth.

Annual < 2 dm, < 8 dm wide, mound-like, monoecious; sap clear
Stem much-branched from base, spreading to ascending
Leaves simple, cauline, alternate; stipules vestigial; petiole 1–5 cm; blade 1–6 cm, ovate, base obtuse to wedge-shaped, margin entire, densely soft stellate-hairy, 3-veined, veins raised
Staminate inflorescence: cyme, terminal; pedicel 2–3 mm
Pistillate inflorescence axillary, below staminate inflorescence; flowers 1–3
Staminate flower: receptacle finely bristly; sepals 5–6; petals 0; stamens 6–10, free, exserted, filaments 1.5–2 mm; nectary 0
Pistillate flower: sepals and petals 0; glands below ovary 4–5; ovary 1-chambered, puberulent, style slender
Fruit ± 4 mm diam
Seed 1, 3–4 mm, smooth or ± ridged; scar not appendaged
Chromosomes: 2n=20.
Ecology: Dry, open, often disturbed areas
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, w Desert
Distribution outside California: to Washington
Flowering time: May–Oct
Seeds eaten by birds; herbage TOXIC to livestock, especially in hay
Recent taxonomic note: *Croton setigerus Hook.
Horticultural information: SUN, DRN: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; rather INV.

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