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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Gary D. Wallace, except as specified

Perennial, shrub, tree
Stem: bark often peeling distinctively
Leaves simple, generally cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers solitary, generally bracted; pedicels often with 2 bractlets
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals generally 4–5, generally free; petals generally 4–5, free or fused; stamens 8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscent by pores or slits; nectary generally at ovary base, disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed
Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry
Seeds generally many, sometimes winged
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium
Reference: [Wallace 1975 Wasmann J Biol 33:1–88; 1975 Bot Not 128:286–298]
Subfamilies Monotropoideae, Pyroloideae, Vaccinioideae sometimes treated as families. Nongreen plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.



Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (Greek: flesh-like, from red inflorescence)


S. sanguinea Torr.

Perennial, nongreen, fleshy, glandular-hairy; roots thick, brittle
Stem 0
Leaf scale-like
Inflorescence: raceme, generally 1.5–3 dm, stout, bright red to orange-red, emerging from soil erect, persistent after seed dispersal; axis generally > 1 cm below lowest flower; bracts < 8 cm, margins long-ciliate; bractlets 0
Flower: sepals 5, free; petals 5, ± 3/4 fused, 12–18 mm, urn-shaped, red; stamens 10, anthers < 4 mm, dehiscent by short separate slits, unawned; nectaries barely visible at ovary base; ovary superior, chambers 5, placentas axile, style < 8 mm, stigma 2–3 mm wide, head-like
Fruit: capsule, < 2.5 cm wide, indehiscent, brittle
Seeds many per chamber, < 1 mm wide, ovoid, unwinged
Chromosomes: 2n=64
Ecology: Coniferous or mixed forests
Elevation: 1000–3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon, n Baja California

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