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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.



Perennial, glabrous, often glaucous; roots tuberous, single or clustered, or fibrous, clustered
Stem erect, branched
Leaf: blade lanceolate to triangular-ovate, generally 1–2-ternate-pinnate or 1–2-pinnately or ternate-pinnately dissected, leaflets or segments generally linear to linear-lanceolate
Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts 0–many, conspicuous and reflexed or not; bractlets several–many, narrow, ± scarious; rays, pedicels few–many, generally spreading-ascending; 2° umbels generally convex on top
Flower: calyx lobes evident; petals generally obovate, white, tips narrowed
Fruit linear-oblong to round, slightly compressed side-to-side or not at all, glabrous; ribs subequal, thread-like to prominent, not winged; oil tubes per rib-interval 1–several; fruit axis divided to base
Seed: face flat to grooved
Species in genus: ± 12 species: generally w Am
Etymology: (Greek: around the neck, from involucre)
Reference: [Chuang & Constance 1969 Univ Calif Publ Bot 55]
Roots, basal leaves needed for identification.


P. gairdneri (Hook. & Arn.) Mathias

Plant 3–14 dm; roots tuberous, single or 2–3-clustered, 1.5–8 cm, fusiform
Leaf: basal petiole 8–15 cm; basal blade 20–35 cm, oblong to ovate, generally 1-pinnate, leaflets 2–12 cm, linear or lanceolate, basal sometimes lobed or ternately dissected; cauline leaves 1–2-pinnate or 1–2-ternate
Inflorescence: peduncle 3–20 cm; bracts generally 0; bractlets 8–13, 1–4 mm, linear-lanceolate; rays generally 7–16, 1.5–7 cm, unequal, spreading-ascending; pedicels 4–8 mm; 2° umbels 15–40-flowered
Flower: styles 1–2 mm
Fruit 2.5–3.5 mm, ± round; ribs thread-like; oil tube per rib-interval 1
Ecology: Moist soil of flats, meadows, streamsides, grasslands, pine groves
Elevation: 0–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast, Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, South Coast, Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: to sw Canada, South Dakota, New Mexico
Sspp. could be considered distinct species

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