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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.



Perennial, glabrous, often glaucous; roots tuberous, single or clustered, or fibrous, clustered
Stem erect, branched
Leaf: blade lanceolate to triangular-ovate, generally 1–2-ternate-pinnate or 1–2-pinnately or ternate-pinnately dissected, leaflets or segments generally linear to linear-lanceolate
Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts 0–many, conspicuous and reflexed or not; bractlets several–many, narrow, ± scarious; rays, pedicels few–many, generally spreading-ascending; 2° umbels generally convex on top
Flower: calyx lobes evident; petals generally obovate, white, tips narrowed
Fruit linear-oblong to round, slightly compressed side-to-side or not at all, glabrous; ribs subequal, thread-like to prominent, not winged; oil tubes per rib-interval 1–several; fruit axis divided to base
Seed: face flat to grooved
Species in genus: ± 12 species: generally w Am
Etymology: (Greek: around the neck, from involucre)
Reference: [Chuang & Constance 1969 Univ Calif Publ Bot 55]
Roots, basal leaves needed for identification.


P. bolanderi (A. Gray) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.

Plant 1.5–9 dm; roots tuberous, single or 2–3-clustered, 1–7 cm
Leaf: basal petiole 2–15 cm; basal blade 10–20 cm, ± ovate, generally 1–2-ternate-pinnately dissected, segments 0.5–6 cm, thread-like to oblong, generally lobed, toothed; cauline leaves ternate-pinnately dissected or 1-ternate
Inflorescence: peduncle 2–20 cm; bracts 8–12, 3–12 mm, ± lanceolate, generally acuminate; bractlets 4–10, 3–9 mm, like bracts; rays 9–23, 1–2 cm, subequal, ascending or spreading-ascending; pedicels 2–5 mm; 2° umbels 18–30-flowered
Flower: petals 1-veined; styles 2 mm
Fruit 4–6 mm, oblong; ribs thread-like; oil tubes per rib-interval 2–3
Ecology: Meadows, scrub, pine forest, blue-oak woodland, summer-dry clay soil
Elevation: 600–2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah
Sspp. quite distinct.

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