Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Perennial, glabrous, ± glaucous; root tuberous
Stem 0 or very short
Leaves basal, often recurved or spreading; lowest bladeless, scarious sheaths; blades ovate to triangular-ovate, 1–3-ternately dissected, segments generally linear to lanceolate, elongate
Inflorescence: umbels compound, peduncled; bracts 0; bractlets 0–few, minute; rays few, spreading; pedicels few, 0 or very short
Flower: calyx 0; petals obovate, white, tips narrowed; projection atop ovary 0
Fruit ± ovate, compressed front-to-back; marginal ribs corky-winged, incurved and not very wing-like, others thread-like; oil tubes per rib-interval several; fruit axis represented by a corky, rib-like, projection along middle of fruit-half
Seed: face slightly concave
Species in genus: 2 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: mountain race)

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