Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.



Annual; roots fibrous; hairs sparse, stiff, backward-pointing
Stem erect, simple or branched from base, generally 5–40 cm, 4-angled
Leaves cauline, thin, serrate, sessile
Inflorescence: flowers solitary to several in axils of leaf-like bracts, sessile
Flowers: lower cleistogamous; sepals spreading, narrowly triangular, not leaf-like; corolla rotate, lobes deep blue to blue-violet; stamen bases wide, ciliate; ovary inferior, elliptic to obovoid, upper 50% papillate
Fruit dehiscing by lateral pores
Seed ± 0.5 mm, widely elliptic in outline
Species in genus: 7–8 species: North America, 1 Medit
Etymology: (Greek: 3 teeth)
Reference: [McVaugh 1945 Wrightia 1:13–52]


T. perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.

Leaf generally 8–11 mm, round-cordate; veins on lower surface conspicuous; base generally clasping stem; tip blunt
Flowers opening in most upper bract axils (lower flowers cleistogamous); ovary 5–10 mm, oblong to obovoid; corolla 8–10 mm, lobes 6–8 mm; stamens 3.5 mm; style 4.5 mm
Fruit: pores near or below middle
Ecology: Disturbed areas
Elevation: < ± 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada (Plumas Co.), Southwestern California (uncommon)
Distribution outside California: to e US, S.America

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