|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Perennial, biennial, ± hairy, taprooted
Leaves entire; basal petioled; cauline petioled or not
Inflorescence: panicle, ± terminal, bracted or not
Flower radial; calyx ± deeply 5-lobed, enlarging in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, appendages large; style entire
Fruit: nutlets generally 4, subspheric, covered with short, barbed prickles
Species in genus: 80 species: worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)
Stem generally 1, 39 dm; hairs 0
Leaves: lower surfaces hairy, upper surfaces ± glabrous; basal petioles 815 cm, ± unwinged; blades 815 cm, 310 cm wide, ± ovate to elliptic, bases truncate or cordate; cauline few, petioled
Inflorescence held above leaves; bracts scale-like or 0; pedicels 1025 mm
Flower: corolla 812 mm, generally 1015 mm wide, ± salverform, blue, tube often violet, appendages white
Fruit: nutlets ascending-spreading, outer surfaces rounded, margins not raised
Ecology: Shaded or open areas, woodland or chaparral
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California (except High North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills (uncommon), n High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5 &SHD: 6, 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 7, 14.