|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual; hairs generally bristly, often with bulbous bases
Stem generally erect, 212 dm, generally green
Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, sessile or lower short-petioled, generally linear to narrowly lanceolate or oblong, generally ± entire
Inflorescence spike-like, generally ± terminal; tip coiled
Flower generally radial; calyx lobes 5, sometimes appearing to be 24 from fusion; corolla orange or yellow, limb generally with 5 red-orange marks
Fruit: nutlets erect, ± triangular, generally with oval lateral scar, generally with round or sharp tubercles
Species in genus: 10 species: w North America, sw South America, widely alien elsewhere
Etymology: (W. Amsinck, patron of Hamburg Botanic Garden, early 19th century)
Reference: [Ray & Chisaki 1957 Amer J Bot 44:529554]
Self-compatible; often heterostylous; large-flowered taxa generally cross-pollinated, small-flowered self-pollinated.
Seeds and herbage TOXIC to livestock (especially cattle) from alkaloids and high nitrate concentrations. Sharp plant hairs irritate human skin.
Flower: calyx lobes 5; corolla 411 mm, 210 mm wide at top, tube 10-veined near base, limb with red-orange marks or not; anthers appressed to stigma in corolla throat
Fruit 23.5 mm; surface tubercled, sometimes ridged
Ecology: Abundant. Open, generally disturbed places
Elevation: < 1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, also in S.America; alien in c&eastern US, eastern hemisphere
100+ named, mostly indistinct variants; self-pollinated; different variants may grow together and remain distinct but intergrade over their ranges. Not heterostylous.