Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

link to manual TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993) previous taxon | next taxon
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



John O. Sawyer, Jr.

Tree, shrub, monoecious
Stem: trunk < 35 m; bark ± smooth; lenticels present
Leaves simple, alternate, petioled, deciduous; stipules deciduous; blade ovate to elliptic, generally serrate, ± doubly so
Inflorescence: catkin, generally appearing before leaves, often clustered; bracts each subtending 2–3 flowers and 3–6 bractlets
Staminate inflorescence pendent, ± elongate
Pistillate inflorescence pendent or erect, developing variously in fruit (see key to genera)
Staminate flower: sepals 0–4, minute; petals 0; stamens 1–10; pistil vestigial or 0
Pistillate flower: sepals 0–4; petals 0; stamens 0; pistil 1, ovary inferior, chambers 2, each 1-ovuled, stigmas 2
Fruit: nut or nutlet, sometimes winged, subtended or enclosed by 1–2 bracts
Genera in family: 6 genera, 105 species: generally n hemisphere; some cultivated.



Tree, shrub
Stem: trunk < 30 m; bark smooth or scaly, aromatic, often peeling in thin layers; twigs puberulent, glandular, or both; lenticels prominent; winter buds sessile, 3-scaled
Leaf glandular-hairy; blade 2–5 cm, widely elliptic, base ± truncate to tapered
Staminate inflorescence 2–7 cm; bracts each subtending 3 flowers and 3 bractlets
Pistillate inflorescence 2–3 cm; bracts each subtending 3 flowers and 3 bractlets
Staminate flower: sepals 4; stamens 2
Pistillate flower: sepals 0
Fruits many, in a non-cone-like catkin, winged; bracts lobed, papery, released with but not attached to fruit
Species in genus: 50 species: circumboreal
Etymology: (Latin: birch)
Important wildlife food; wood used for interior finishing; many species cultivated.


B. glandulosa Michx.


Stem: trunks < 2 m; bark brown to gray, not peeling; twigs waxy-gray, with resin glands
Leaf: petiole < 6 mm, hairy; blade 1–2 cm, elliptic to widely ovate, leathery, glands on both surfaces, base tapered, tip round, margin crenate
Pistillate inflorescence 1–3 cm; bracts resin-dotted
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Uncommon. Streams, meadow edges
Elevation: ± 2100 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e N.America
Horticultural information: WET, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 15, 16; STBL.

previous taxon | next taxon
bioregional map for BETULA%20glandulosa being generated

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Betula glandulosa
Retrieve dichotomous key for Betula
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
Return to the Jepson Interchange main page
Return to treatment index page

University & Jepson Herbaria Home Page |
General Information | University Herbarium | Jepson Herbarium |
Visiting the Herbaria | On-line Resources | Research |
Education | Related Sites
Copyright © by the Regents of the University of California