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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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James R. Griffin

Tree or shrub, monoecious, evergreen
Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent
Leaves simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; bases decurrent, sometimes woody, persistent several years
Pollen cone generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous
Seed cone generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract
Seeds 2, on upper side of scale base
Genera in family: 10 genera, 193 species: mostly n hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > half of world's timber
Reference: [Price 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:247–305]



Stem: young crown conic, mature crown often rounded or flat; branches ± whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature bark furrowed; bud ± conic, generally resinous
Leaves generally 2.5–35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of 1–5; bundles solitary in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, each bundle enclosed at base in a sometimes deciduous sheath of bracts, generally persistent several seasons
Seed cones often whorled, generally maturing and opening 2nd season, sometimes persistent on stem; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale, minute; scale tip reflexed and elongated 3–7 cm, or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm
Seed: coat hard, sometimes woody
Chromosomes: 2n=24 for all reports
Species in genus: 94 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: pine)
Reference: [Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39–53]


P. sabiniana D. Don


Stem: trunk < 38 m, < 2 m wide, often leaning; several major branches after 20–30 years; bark dark gray with irregular furrows, forming yellow plates when very old
Leaves 3 per bundle, 9–38 cm, gray-green, fragrant; sheath persistent
Seed cone pendent, 10–28 cm, ovate-oblong, brownish, opening slowly 2nd season, then persistent several years; stalk < 7 cm, persistent (with basal cone scales) several years; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3–7 cm, angled
Seed > wing
Ecology: Foothill woodland, n oak woodland, chaparral, infertile soils in mixed-conifer and hardwood forests
Elevation: 150–1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except n Northwestern California, n Cascade Range, San Joaquin Valley), w Great Basin Floristic Province, w Desert.Common name "digger pine" is pejorative in origin, so best avoided
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 &IRR: 8, 9, 10, 11.

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