Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James R. Griffin

Tree or shrub, monoecious, evergreen
Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent
Leaves simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; bases decurrent, sometimes woody, persistent several years
Pollen cone generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous
Seed cone generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract
Seeds 2, on upper side of scale base
Genera in family: 10 genera, 193 species: mostly n hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > half of world's timber
Reference: [Price 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:247–305]



Stem: crown conic; young branches appearing whorled, sometimes drooping; bark thin, scaly; twig glabrous or hairy; leaf bases spreading, peg-like, < 2 mm, persistent; bud conic to ovoid, resinous
Leaves often crowded toward upper side of twigs, generally < 3 cm, sessile, ± 4-angled or flat, stiff, often strong-smelling when crushed
Seed cone sometimes conspicuously terminal, pendent, 5–12 cm, maturing 1st season; stalk 0–1 cm; bract included, free from scale
Seed: wing terminal
Chromosomes: 2n=24 for all reports
Species in genus: 34 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: pitch)
Trunks, especially of P. sitchensis , more flared or buttressed at base than other CA conifers.


P. engelmannii Engelm.


Stem: trunk < 55 m, < 2.4 m wide; branches not drooping; young twigs ± hairy
Leaf < 3 cm, rigid, 4-sided; both surfaces with 2 obvious, whitish bands; tip flattened, acute, not sharp to touch
Seed cone < 7 cm, ovoid-oblong; scale papery, margin ± jagged
Ecology: Cool, moist, mixed-conifer, subalpine forests
Elevation: 1200–2100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, in Rocky Mtns to New Mexico
3 populations known in CA.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for PICEA%20engelmannii being generated

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