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Key to Boraginaceae

View taxon page for Boraginaceae

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Plants non-green, parasitic ..... PHOLISMA

1' Plants green, non-parasitic

2. Ovary deeply (2)4-lobed, style base generally ± hidden within lobes; fruit 1–4 free nutlets

3. Nutlets spreading

4. Corolla blue to red-purple; nutlet ± spheric or disk-shaped, prickles barbed; biennial, perennial herb ..... CYNOGLOSSUM

4' Corolla white; nutlet generally compressed, prickles straight or hooked at tip, not barbed; annual

5. Calyx lobes in fruit unequal, upper 2 >> others, partly fused, arched over 1 nutlet, with 5–10 stout spines each with hooked bristles; nutlets 2 ..... HARPAGONELLA

5' Calyx lobes in fruit ± equal or, if unequal, upper 2 > others, free, not arched over 1 nutlet, without spines but with hooked or straight prickles; nutlets generally 4 ..... PECTOCARYA

3' Nutlets ± erect

6. Corolla rotate; anthers 5–8 mm, closely appressed to style, separating in age ..... BORAGO

6' Corolla salverform, funnel-shaped, or ± tubular (except Symphytum); anthers < 5 mm, generally not closely appressed to style

7. Flowers 1–2 per leaf axil; calyx lobes with 1–2 teeth in fruit ..... ASPERUGO

7' Flowers 1 per distal leaf axil or in 1–many dense to elongate cymes, variously arranged; calyx lobes without teeth in fruit

8. Nutlet scar ± flat to strong-convex, with thick rim

9. Corolla appendages ovate to oblong, generally distal to anthers; corolla throat ± expanded distal to tube or tube and throat not differentiated ..... ANCHUSA

9' Corolla appendages lance-linear to lanceolate, at same level as anthers; corolla throat expanded distal to tube ..... SYMPHYTUM

8' Nutlet scar flat, curved, or grooved, without thick rim

10. Receptacle ± flat; nutlet scar generally basal (except Mertensia)

11. Shrub, 1–3+ m ..... ECHIUM (2)

11' Annual, biennial, perennial herb

12. Corolla white to yellow

13. Corolla tube > lobes; inflorescence bracts throughout ..... LITHOSPERMUM

13' Corolla tube << lobes; inflorescence bracts at base or to middle ..... [Myosotis verna]

12' Corolla generally blue to purple (white to yellow)

14. Corolla ± bilateral ..... ECHIUM (2)

14' Corolla radial

15. Corolla often ± cylindric or bell-shaped, blue, generally pink in bud ..... MERTENSIA

15' Corolla salverform or wide-funnel-shaped, generally blue, white, or yellow ..... MYOSOTIS

10' Receptacle ± conic or elongate; nutlet scar generally lateral

16. Nutlet margin prickles generally barbed

17. Perennial herb (biennial); pedicel recurved to reflexed in fruit; receptacle ± 1/2 nutlet ..... HACKELIA

17' Annual; pedicel erect in fruit; receptacle ± = nutlet ..... LAPPULA

16' Nutlet margin prickles 0 or not barbed

18. Corolla tube, limb orange or yellow (red-orange)

19. Annual ..... AMSINCKIA

19' Perennial herb ..... Cryptantha confertiflora

18' Corolla tube, limb white to cream-yellow

20. Nutlet adaxially grooved distal to scar, scar raised or generally not ..... CRYPTANTHA

20' Nutlet adaxially keeled distal to scar; scar generally raised ..... PLAGIOBOTHRYS

2' Ovary entire or shallow-lobed, style base visible; fruit generally a capsule (4 initially fused nutlets in Heliotropium, Tiquilia)

21. Shrub, small tree

22. Leaf blade < 6 cm wide; stamens included; stigmas not lobed; seeds 2–15 ..... ERIODICTYON

22' Leaf blade (3-)10–35 cm wide; stamens exserted; stigmas 2-lobed; seeds >= 200 ..... WIGANDIA

21' Annual, perennial herb, subshrub

23. Calyx lobes not alike, outer 3 cordate ..... TRICARDIA

23' Calyx lobes alike or not, not cordate

24. Calyx sinus appendages generally present (0 in Pholistoma membranaceum, sometimes 0 in Nemophila pulchella); annual

25. Ovary, fruit hairy, not bristly ..... NEMOPHILA

25' Ovary, fruit bristly-hairy ..... PHOLISTOMA

24' Calyx sinus appendages 0; annual, perennial herb, subshrub

26. Styles 2, clearly distinct throughout length

27. Plant 1–3 m ..... Eriodictyon parryi

27' Plant generally < 0.5 m

28. Annual ..... NAMA (2)

28' Perennial herb

29. Leaves entire; inflorescence not spheric, interrupted by leaf-like bracts ..... Eriodictyon lobbii

29' Leaves crenate-dentate; inflorescence spheric, not interrupted by leaf-like bracts ..... Nama rothrockii

26' Styles 0–1, 2-lobed or not, sometimes nearly to base

30. Leaves cauline, opposite ..... DRAPERIA

30' Leaves basal or, if cauline, at least some alternate

31. Ovary ± lobed; fruit nutlets

32. Style 0 or not lobed; stigma 1 ..... HELIOTROPIUM

32' Style deeply 2-lobed; stigmas 2 ..... TIQUILIA

31' Ovary not lobed; fruit a capsule

33. Annual

34. Herbage sticky; ovules on both sides of placenta; 1–2 seeds persistent in fruit ..... EUCRYPTA

34' Herbage generally not sticky (except Emmenanthe, some Phacelia species); ovules on 1 side of placenta; seeds not persistent in fruit

35. Stamens generally unequal, attached at different levels ..... NAMA (2)

35' Stamens generally equal, attached ± at same level

36. Flowers ± subspreading to pendent; corolla persistent, white, yellow, or pink, in age papery ..... EMMENANTHE

36' Flowers spreading to erect; corolla generally deciduous, blue to purple, occasionally persistent, yellow (purple), in age not papery ..... PHACELIA (2)

33' Perennial herb

37. Plant with fleshy-fibrous or tuber-like roots or base bulb-like; style ± 2-lobed

38. Leaves compound to simple, deep-lobed, sinuses reaching midrib, stamens exserted; seeds 1–3 ..... HYDROPHYLLUM

38' Leaves simple, entire, toothed, or lobed, sinuses not reaching midrib; stamens included; seeds many ..... ROMANZOFFIA

37' Plant taprooted, base not bulb-like, tubers 0; style 2-lobed to -branched

39. Inflorescence many-flowered; leaves generally lobed to compound, sometimes entire ..... PHACELIA (2)

39' Inflorescence 1–several-flowered; leaves entire

40. Inflorescence 1-flowered; style tip 2-lobed; seeds many ..... HESPEROCHIRON

40' Inflorescence 1–several-flowered; style cleft ± to base; seeds 2–4 ..... HOWELLANTHUS


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].

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