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Bulletin of the California Lichen Society

Volume 5 No. 1 Summer 1998

Key to Crustose Lichen Genera of California

Shirley Tucker
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
Harry Thiers
9013 N. Picture Ridge Rd. Peoria, IL 61615

The keys are modified from an unpublished manuscript prepared by Harry Thiers. Additional information was gathered from Purvis et al. (1995), Sonoran keys (unpubl.) by B. Ryan and T.H. Nash, and Fink (1935). Some genera are in more than one key. Fifty other genera, not mentioned in the keys, occur in California but are infrequently collected. The number of species in California is provided in the keys; most are listed in Tucker and Jordan (1979), but not necessarily under the same name. Currently accepted lichen names are to be found in Esslinger and Egan (1995). Index to genera covered is at end, on p. 11.

1. Lichen bearing noticeable fruiting bodies ......2 (5 choices)
1. Lichen sterile or with inconspicuous, sunken perithecia ......4

2. Fruiting body a mazaedium (circular, flat open center, black-powdery to the touch, raised on a stalk of varying height; no hymenium) Key A
2. Fruiting body mushroom-like (basidiomycetous lichen) ......Omphalina (2 spp.)
2. Fruiting body a lirella (elongate, narrow, round, branched, or irregular in outline) (this and subsequent entries are ascomycetous lichens)...... Key B
2. Fruiting body a perithecium (conical or mound-shaped with a tiny opening or ostiole; internally the globose cavity is lined with a hymenium) ......Key C (see also key G)
2. Fruiting body an apothecium (circular, with open disk, not conspicuously stalked or powdery to the touch); hymenium occupying relatively flat disk ......3

3. Apothecium lecanorine (has a concolorous or light-colored exciple or rim, a thalline margin, contrasting with the disk in color; section shows algae in exciple ......Key D
3. Apothecium lecideine (exciple or rim the same color as disk; section shows no algae in exciple) ......Key E

4. Crustose ......Key F
4. Squamulose ......Key G


1. Ascocarps stalked ......2

1. Ascocarps sessile (not stalked, but may be raised in warts) ......3

2. Spores non-septate ......4

2. Spores septate ......5

3. Spores brown, 1-septate; apothecia sessile or immersed, with dark lateral exciple ......6

3. Spores brown, non-septate to 1-septate; apothecia on raised warts; thin, hyaline lateral exciple ......Thelomma (6 spp.)

4. Mazaedium yellow; spores hyaline (colorless) ......Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell (9 spp.; Syn.: Coniocybe f.)

4. Mazaedium brown; spores ovoid to ellipsoid ......7

5. Ascocarp with small, punctiform disk; spores brown, 3-7-septate ......Stenocybe (2 spp.)

5. Ascocarp with open disk; spores brown, 1-septate ......Calicium (8 spp.)

6. Outer spore wall blistered, covered with a cellular layer from surrounding paraphyses, obscuring its two-celled nature; rare ......Texosporium sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Nádv.

6. Spore wall not so blistered ......Cyphelium (9 spp.)

7. Well-developed thallus, often granulose ......Chaenotheca (9 spp.)

7. Thallus usually inconspicuous, often within the substrate, non-lichenized, saprophytic

......Mycocalicium (3 spp.)

Note: several additional genera belong in this section and occur in California: Microcalicium (green spore mass; 2 spp.), Phaeocalicium (spores brown, unicellular or 1-septate, not forming a spore mass; 2 spp.), Sphinctrina (spores brown, unicellular, with thick wall and gelatinous coat, tardily forming a spore mass; 4 spp.)


1. Paraphyses unbranched, parallel, and distinct ......2

1. Paraphyses branched and interwoven ......3

2. Spores non-septate ......Xylographa (3 spp.)

2. Spores transversely septate or muriform ......4

3. Spores muriform ......Arthothelium (10 spp.)

3. Spores transversely septate ......6

4. Spores transversely septate ......5

4. Spores muriform, spores hyaline at maturity

Graphina parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.; two other species have been found in northern California

5. Spores 2-celled, cells cylindrical ......Melaspilea constrictella (Stirton) A.L. Sm.

5. Spores 4-celled or more ......9

6. Several ascocarps embedded in a stroma ......7

6. Ascocarps not in a stroma ......8

7. Spores hyaline ......Chiodecton (2 spp.)

7. Spores brown ......Sclerophyton (2 spp.)

8. Exciple tissue present around hymenium, carbonaceous, black and opaque ......Opegrapha (15 spp.)

8. Exciple lacking or rudimentary; asci pear-shaped, among bark cells; no well developed hymenium or paraphyses ......Arthonia (35 spp.)

9. Spores hyaline at maturity ......10

9. Spores brown at maturity ......Phaeographis (3 spp.)

10. Lirellae elongate, often branched; thalline margin thin and inconspicuous ......Graphis (5 spp.)

10. Lirellae round, irregular, or slightly elongate; thalline margin conspicuous; on seacoast 11

11. Thallus gray to whitish gray ......12

11. Thallus brownish; cortical hyphae intertwined

......Roccellina conformis Tehler

12. Thallus whitish gray; cortical hyphae perpendicular to surface ......Dirina catalinariae Hasse

12. Thallus gray; cortical hyphae intertwined ......Roccellina franciscana (Zahlbr. ex Herre) Follmann


1. Thallus squamulose or umbilicate, gray or brown, on soil 2 (see also key G)
1. Thallus crustose ......4

2. Spores non-septate ......Dermatocarpon (7 spp.)

2. Spores transversely septate or muriform ......3

3. Spores transversely septate

Heterocarpon ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. (Fungus growing on lichen as lectotypified by H. Harada, Systema Ascomycetum 10 [1]: 1-6. 1991).

3. Spores muriform; hymenial algae in perithecium ......Endocarpon (9 spp.)

4. Perithecia clustered, separated only by partitions; opening through irregular pores; spores transversely 1-3-septate

Mycoporum californicum (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris (Syn.: Tomasellia californica (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris) and M. lacteum (Ach.) R.C. Harris (Syn.: Tomasellia lactea (Ach.) R.C. Harris)

4. Perithecia separate, opening through round pores


5. Algal symbiont blue-green ......6

5. Algal symbiont green ......7

6. Marine, often on attached mollusc shells and barnacle tests ......Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R.C. Harris

6. Terrestrial on rock ......Hassea bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

7. Algal symbiont grass-green (Trebouxia or other genus, but not Trentepohlia), yellow-green (Xanthophyte), or brown 8

7. Algal symbiont yellow-green, or golden brown (Trentepohlia) ......18

8. Paraphyses indistinct, disappearing ......9

8. Paraphyses, distinct, persistent ......15

9. Many small spores per ascus ......10

9. Spores 8 or fewer per ascus ......11

10. Asci soon disintegrating; ascocarp partly immersed ......Trimmatothele umbellulariae Herre

10. Ascocarp persistent, entirely covered by a thalline layer except for pore ......Thelocarpon hassei de Lesd.

11. Spores non-septate, hyaline, often with granular contents ......Verrucaria (23 spp.)

11. Spores transversely septate or muriform ......12

12. Spores transversely septate . ......Thelidium (2 spp.)

12. Spores muriform ......13

13. Algal cells present in hymenium ......Staurothele (7 spp.)
13. Algal cells lacking in hymenium ......14

14. On rock; spores hyaline to pale brownish ......Polyblastia (2 spp.)

14. On bark; spores brown ......Pyrenula pyrenuloides (Mont.) R.C. Harris, P. thelomorpha Tuck.

15. Paraphyses much-branched and anastomosing; ascocarp often with nearly closed opening, resembling a perithecium; ascocarp often immersed in wart; spores often large and thick-walled ......Pertusaria (17 spp.)

15. Paraphyses with few branches, if any (except in Thelenella) ......16

16. Ascus containing many tiny spores ......Thelocarpon hassei de Lesd. (See also Key D 15)

16. Spores usually 8 per ascus, or if ascus multispored, spores are large ......17

17. Spores non-septate ......Thrombium (2 spp.)

17. Spores muriform, hyaline . ......Thelenella (6 spp.;

Syn.: Microglaena, Polyblastiopsis)

(Photobiont Trentepohlia:)

18. Spores 1-septate, many per ascus ......Thelopsis isiaca Stizenb.

18. Spores with 1 or more septa, usually 8 per ascus


19. Paraphyses branched or not, but interwoven; spores hyaline or brown, transversely septate ......20

19. Paraphyses unbranched, straight, distinct ; spores transversely septate, hyaline or brown ......22

20. Spores hyaline; white or gray crust on bark ......21

20. Spores brown; a saprophyte, growing on other lichens ......Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops

(Berk. & Curt.) D. Hawksw.

21. Common; two cells of spore often unequal in size ......Anisomeridium biforme (Borrer) R.C. Harris

21. Less common; cells of spore equal in size ......Arthopyrenia (6 spp.)

22. Spores hyaline ......23

22. Spores brown ......Pyrenula (5 spp.)

23. Perithecial wall black or dark brown; asci with thick apical domes ......Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R.C. Harris

23. Perithecial wall some other color ......24

24. Perithecial wall may contain yellow pigments

......Porina (4 spp.)

24. Perithecial wall may contain violet pigments; ascus wall thin, with apical chitinized ring ......Pseudosagedia (3 spp.)


1. Algal symbiont blue-green ......2

1. Algal symbiont green (but see also 13; blue-green algae may be associated with Schismatomma and Roccellina) ......4

2. Thallus squamulose, peltate, or umbilicate ......3

2. Thallus crustose; ascus thin-walled, with 8 hyaline, non-septate spores ......Psorotichia (4 spp.) (For Pyrenopsis, see E 6)

3. Many spores per ascus ......Peltula (8 spp.)

3. Eight spores per ascus ......Heppia (3 spp.)

4. Algal symbiont Trentepohlia (yellow-green, or golden brown) ......5

4. Algal symbiont Trebouxia (grass-green) ......14

5. Spores muriform; ascocarp low-conical or doughnut-shaped ......Thelotrema (2 spp.)

5. Spores transversely septate only ......6

6. Spores brown ......Thelotrema californicum Tuck.

6. Spores hyaline ......7

7. Paraphyses small, branched and contorted; apothecia usually gray, white, brown, or black ......8

7. Paraphyses unbranched; apothecium yellow or orange ......Dimerella (2 spp.)

8. On soil; thick thallus ......Roccellina franciscana

(Zahlbr. ex Herre) Follmann

8. On bark; thallus variable in thickness ......9

9. Apothecia usually pruinose ......10

9. Apothecia not usually pruinose ......13

10. Spores 25 Ám long or less ......11

10. Spores mostly over 25 Ám long ......12

11. Apothecia usually circular, 0.5-1.0 mm in diameter, with well developed thalline margin; spores 15-24 Ám long, 3-septate ......Sigridea californica (Tuck.) Tehler

11. Apothecia circular, irregular, or elongated, 0.3-0.8 mm in diameter; apothecial margin not lecanorine; spores 20-25 Ám long, 3-9-septate ......Schismatomma rediunta (Hasse) Tehler

12. Apothecia circular to irregular, to 1.5 mm in diameter, margin often convoluted; spores 25-30 Ám long, 7-septate ......Lecanographa

hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente

12. Apothecia circular to irregular, 0.6-2.0 mm in diameter, spores 30-42 Ám long, 3-septate

Lecanactis abietina (Ach.) Körber

13. Thallus thick, often with black hypothallus; apothecia 0.5-2.0 mm in diameter; spores 40-50 Ám long, 7-13-septate

Schismatomma pluriloculare Zahlbr.

13. Thallus thick, conspicuous round to lobed apothecia ......Roccellina conformis Tehler

14. Ascus with many tiny spores ......15

14. Ascus with 8 spores, rarely 16 19 (4 choices)

15. Apothecium resembling a perithecium, minute, globose, covered by a thin thalline margin except for a small pore; thallus of dispersed yellow areoles

......Thelocarpon hassei de Lesd. (See also Key C 16)

15. Apothecia disk-like, immersed or not; thallus crustose or squamulose, grayish, brownish, or yellowish


16. Thallus crustose; spores 1- or 2-celled; apothecia adnate or sessile ......Maronea constans (Nyl.) Hepp

16. Thallus crustose, minutely lobed, or squamulose; spores unicellular ......17

17. Thallus umbilicate, somewhat lobed at margin, whitish; apothecia compound

Glypholecia scabra (Pers.) Müll. Arg.

17. Thallus areolate, not umbilicate, yellow or brownish ......18

18. Thallus yellow or brownish, adnate; paraplectenchymatous cortex; simple ascus wall ......Acarospora (37 spp.)

18. Thallus yellow, adnate, with lobed margin; cortex prosenchymatous; ascus apex with ocular chamber, I+ blue interior area ......Pleopsidium (2 spp.)

19. Spores polarilocular ......20

19. Spores muriform ......25

19. Spores unicellular ......26

19. Spores transversely septate ......43

20. Spores brown ......21

20. Spores hyaline ......Caloplaca (67 spp.)

21. Non-lichenized; thallus of isodiametric cells, ascolocular apothecia; rare ......Lichenothelia scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw.

21. Lichenized; crustose thallus of differing-sized cells ......22

22. Thallus with lobes ......23

22. Thallus lacking lobes ......24

23. Thallus with radiate, plicate lobed margins ......Dimelaena (4 spp.)
23. Effigurate crust with irregular lobate marginal squamules; brown rhizohyphae below ......Phaeorrhiza sareptana (Tomin) H. Mayrh. & Poelt

24. Thin, inconspicuous crust, not inflated, greenish to brown ......Rinodina (30 spp.)

24. Crust with more or less inflated, convex areoles ......Mobergia (2 spp.)

25. Spores hyaline ......Phlyctis (2 spp.)

25. Spores brown ......Diploschistes (7 spp.)

26. Paraphyses branched and fusing, netlike ......27 (3 choices)

26. Paraphyses unbranched, straight, distinct ......28

27. Hymenium open and exposed, often pinkish orange; no soraliate warts or cephalodia; large spores with thick, uniform walls; common, on bark or rock ......Ochrolechia (14 spp.)

27. Hymenium usually immersed in warts, often resemble perithecia; spores large, thick-walled; spores 2, 4, or 8 per ascus ......Pertusaria (17 spp.)

27. Soraliate warts with cephalodia; on rock, rare ......Coccotrema pocillarium (Cummings) Brodo

28. Thallus yellow to yellow-orange; spores simple or 1-septate ......29

28. Thallus not yellow ......30

29. Thallus and hymenium K ......Candelariella (7 spp.)

29. Hymenium strongly K+ purple ......Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin

30. Thallus with lobed, subfoliose margin closely appressed to substrate; cephalodia and soredia present on upper surface; apothecia pinkish ......Placopsis gelida (L.) Lindsay

30. Thallus usually not lobed; if lobed, cephalodia lacking ......31

31. Apothecia adnate to sessile, not usually immersed ......32

31. Apothecia usually immersed in thallus areoles ......40

32. Thallus subfruticose ......33

32. Thallus crustose, not subfruticose ......34

33. Thallus has dense medulla with algae scattered in clumps ......Cladidium bolanderi (Tuck.) B.D. Ryan

33. Thallus has algae in a definite layer; medulla loose ......Lecanora in part

34. Crust lobed or umbilicate ......35

34. Crust not lobed, or if margin lobed, yellow in color ......37

35. Crust lobed, colony removeable as a whole 36

35. Crust umbilicate ......Rhizoplaca (6 species)

36. Sunken apothecia ......Lobothallia (3 spp.)

36. Apothecia usually adnate or sessile ......Lecanora: Placodium group

37. Yellow areolate crust ......Pleopsidium (2 spp.)

37. Crust not yellow ......38

38. Spores with halo; on rock ......Bellemerea (2 spp.)

38. Spores lacking halo; various substrates ......39 (3 choices)

39. Apothecia of various colors including black; hypothecium colorless; paraphyses usually simple, septate, each with a swollen cap; very common ......Lecanora (71 spp.)

39. Apothecia large with black disk, thalline margin prominent or lacking; purple to green epithecium, ochraceous hypothecium; paraphyses swell strongly in water; occasional ......Tephromela (3 spp.)

39. Crust some shade of brown; ascospores narrow; caps of paraphyses are swollen and brown; rare ......Protoparmelia (3 spp.)

40. Spores over 30 Ám long, thallus pale, warty; disk black ......Megaspora verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth

40. Spores smaller than 30 Ám long ......41

41. Spores with halo ......Bellemerea (2 spp.)

41. Spores lacking halo ......42

42. Crust not usually lobed ......Aspicilia (16 spp.)

42. Crust usually lobed ......Lobothallia (3 spp.)

(Transversely septate spores, from 19:)

43. Spores brown ......44

43. Spores hyaline ......46

44. Thallus lobed, subfoliose on margins ......Dimelaena (5 spp.)

44. Thallus not lobed ......45

45. Crust continuous or areolate ......Rinodina (38 spp.)

45. Thallus with convex, swollen areoles ......Mobergia (2 spp.)

46. Spores 3-septate or more, acicular (elongate, narrow) ......47

46. Spores 1-septate (rarely to 3-septate) ......49

47. On rock; crust yellow-green, coarse, areolate, warty, not sorediate; apothecia red, immersed or not, with thalline margin ...... Ophioparma lapponica (Räsänen) Hafellner & R.W. Rogers

47. On bark 48 (3 choices)

48. Crust sorediate, yellowish to yellow-gray; apothecia red-brown; rare ......Loxospora elatina (Ach.) A. Massal.

48. Crust not sorediate, whitish, granular; apothecia scarlet, thalline margin present, soon disappearing; epihymenium K+ blue, thick paraphyses; on bark or wood, locally common ......Ophioparma rubricosa (Müll. Arg.) S. Ekman

48. Crust on bark, whitish to grayish, apothecia scarlet, immersed or sessile, distinct thalline margin

Haematomma persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. (Staiger & Kalb 1995)

49. Thallus marginally lobate or squamulose ......Solenopsora (2 spp.)

49. Thallus not lobed ......50

50. Apothecia pink at maturity, on stumps or debris

Icmadophila ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr.

50. Apothecia not pink ......51

51. Thallus yellow or yellow-orange ......Candelariella (8 spp.)

51. Thallus gray, pinkish tan, or brown ......Lecania (16 spp.)


1. Thallus squamulose, peltate, or umbilicate ......2

1. Thallus crustose ......4

2. Epithecium brown-green; thallus squamulose, peltate, or umbilicate; fusiform spores; often on burnt substrate ......Hypocenomyce (5 spp.)

2. Epithecium not brown-green, often K+ violet; squamulose to areolate ......3

3. Epithecium K+ purple; squamulose ......Psora (10 spp.)

3. Epithecium with various K reactions; only Toninia sedifolia (Scop.) Timdal is known to be K+ purple; areolate to squamulose ......Toninia (9 spp.)

4. Algal photobiont blue-green ......5

4. Algal photobiont green ......7

5. Thallus usually isidiate; often with radiating lobes; apothecia dark brown to black; hymenium blue, green, or brown-violet ......Placynthium (3 spp.)

5. Thallus not isidiate, crustose, sometimes lobed, or minutely squamulose ......6

6. Black, crustose or minutely squamulose; urceolate black apothecium; thalline exciple prominent; ascus apical dome I+ blue Pyrenopsis (3 spp.)

6. Apothecia arise between lobes; dark apothecium lacks true thalline margin ......Metamelaena melambola (Tuck.) Henssen

7. Algal symbiont Trentepohlia (yellow-green, or golden brown) 8 (3 choices)

7. Algal symbiont grass-green (Trebouxia, or other coccoid green alga), or non-lichenized (Dactylospora, 22) ......13

8. Spores unicellular, colorless, on rock ......Ionaspis lacustris (With.) Lutzoni

8. Spores muriform or septate, thin-walled ascus apex, proper margin closely surrounded by and much surpassing the thalline covering; on bark, rock, or soil 9

8. Spores transversely septate, colorless; ascus apex thin, simple (Dimerella) or more differentiated ......10

9. On rock or bark; spores muriform or septate ......Gyalecta (3 spp.)

9. On soil; small urceolate apothecia; colorless 3-septate spores ......Ramonia ablephora (Nyl. ex Hasse) R.C. Harris

10. Shaded substrates such as moss, tree bases; paraphyses unbranched, apothecia yellow, spores 2-celled ......Dimerella (2 spp.)

10. Spores 4- to many-celled ......11

11. Apothecia pruinose, pruina same color as thallus; exciple not carbonaceous, having visibly distinct hyphae ......Lecanactis (5 spp.)

11. Apothecia not pruinose, or with pruina of different color from thallus; black apothecia; on bark ......12

12. Carbonaceous exciple, obscuring cells of the exciple ......Cresponea (2 spp.)

12. Exciple not carbonaceous, dark brown, paler inward; excipular cells visible; ascospores acicular, colorless, multiseptate, the cells breaking apart in some ......Bactrospora (4 spp.)

13. Squamulose; spores hyaline, simple to 7-septate; on rock or soil ......Toninia (9 spp.) (see 3 above)

13. Crustose ......14

14. Spores many per ascus ......15

14. Spores 8 per ascus ......18

15. On wood or soil; apothecia pale ......Biatorella (2 spp.)

15. On rock ......16

16. Thallus well developed, blackening ......Sporastatia (2 spp.)

16. Thallus thin, inconspicuous, often disappearing, not blackening; black apothecia 17 (3 choices)

17. Apothecia with carbonaceous epithecium; gyrose disk; spores narrowly ellipsoid ......Polysporina simplex (Davies) Vzda

17. Epithecium brown, not carbonaceous; spores ellipsoid ......Sarcogyne (5 spp.)

17. Epithecium aeruginose blue-gray, rarely pale brown, not carbonaceous; globose spores; on wood ......Strangospora moriformis (Ach.) Stein

18. Spores brown 19 (also Lopadium dodgei, 23)

18. Spores hyaline ......23

19. Paraphyses with enlarged tips, unbranched, not forked; spores polarilocular or muriform ......20

19. Paraphyses branched, lacking enlarged tips; spores 1-septate or muriform; on rock ......Rhizocarpon (23 spp.) ......20 Thallus has lobate margin, black rhizines below; apothecia lateral on lobes ......Catolechia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Körber

20. Thallus crustose, lacking lobes ......21

21. Submuriform to muriform spores ......Diplotomma (4 spp.)

21. Polarilocular spores ......22

22. Pycniospores bacilliform, short ......Buellia (27 spp.)

22. Pycniospores filiform, long ......Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. (Syn.: Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal.); non-lichenized Dactylospora (2 spp.) also keys here.

23. Spores muriform ......Lopadium dodgei Herre

23. Spores simple, septate or polarilocular ......24 (4 choices)

24. Spore 1-septate 25 (3 choices)

24. Spore 2-septate or more 28 (3 choices)

24. Spore polarilocular; crustose or subfruticose, orange shades ......Caloplaca (67 spp.)

24. Spores simple (Fulgensia and Catillaria have simple to septate spores) ......31

25. Squamulose to placodioid thallus, yellow; spores 1-septate or simple ......Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin

25. Thallus foliicolous ......Fellhanera bouteillei (Desmaz.) Vzda

25. Crustose thallus ......26

26. Halo around spore; apothecia black ......Catinaria atropurpurea (Schaerer) Vzda & Poelt

26. No halo around spore ......27

27. Abundant pycnidia that are K+ purple ......Cliostomum griffithii (Sm.) Coppins

27. Pycnidia inconspicuous; spores simple or 1-septate ......Catillaria (9 spp.)

28. On soil ......Ramonia ablephora (Nyl. ex Hasse) R.C. Harris (see also 9)

28. On rock, rarely on wood; spirally twisted, needle-like spores ......Scoliciosporum umbrinum (Ach.) Arnold

28. On bark ......29

29. Spores acicular (needle-like) 30 (3 choices)

29. Spores long and narrow, 9-18 x 4-5 Ám, 3-septate, 8-16 per ascus; black apothecia; crust gray-green to gray; pale yellow hypothecium ......Arthrosporum populorum A. Massal.

30. Apothecia pale tan to brown or black; proper exciple of thick-walled hyphae; spores acicular, 3-16-septate ......Bacidia (12 spp.)

30. Apothecia pale pink, orange, through brown; proper exciple of thin-walled hyphae with broad lumina; no crystals in cortex ......Bacidina (4 spp.)

30. Apothecia red or red-brown ......Ophioparma (2 spp.) (see also Key D, 47, 48)

31. Spores very large, thick-walled, 1-2 per ascus ......Mycoblastus (2 spp.)

31. Spores small, thin-walled, more than 2 per ascus ......32

32. Proper exciple well developed ......33

32. Proper exciple poorly developed, spores sometimes becoming septate ......Micarea (5 spp.)

33. Medullary hyphae not amyloid; black apothecia with proper exciple; epithecium green, black, or brown; hypothecium various colors; paraphyses unbranched, free, easily separated in water; ascospores unicellular (rarely, 1-septate), 8/ascus, with moderately thick, even walls ......Lecidella (10 spp.)

33. Medullary hyphae often amyloid (I+ blue); paraphyses somewhat coherent ......Lecidea sensu lato (in the broad sense) (to determine to which segregate genus of Lecidea a lichen belongs, continue 34 through 58)

34. Thallus squamulose ......35

34. Thallus crustose ......37

35. On burnt wood, sorediate/isidiate or not; apothecia with proper margin; ellipsoid-fusiform spores, sometimes 1-septate ......Hypocenomyce (5 spp.) (see Keys E 2, G 14)

35. On soil, moss, or rock; no isidia 36 (4 choices)

36. Squamules free and upright, white, pink, tan, gray or brown, often white below; margins sometimes white or pruinose; apothecia usually black, globose, hypothecium usually brown; on soil or rock ......Psora (10 spp.) (see also Keys E 3, G 15, G 17)

36. Squamules brown-gray to ashy white, on black hypothallus; apothecia red-brown to black, flat to convex, adnate, 0.4-1 mm diameter; hypothecium hyaline; spores 10-18 x 5-8 Ám; on gravels and peaty soil ......Lecidoma demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider & Hertel

36. Squamules brown or greenish with black margins, darker below, covered below with dark, blue-green rhizoids; on rock; apothecia black, 0.3-0.9 mm diameter, flat to convex, adnate; hypothecium hyaline; spores 8-15 x 5-7 Ám ......Psorula rufonigra (Tuck.) Gotth. Schneider

36. Squamules on soil, wood, or turf; white squamulose, C+ red, sometimes with small circular scars (in Trapeliopsis wallrothii, G17); or granular or areolate, green-gray to ashy or brownish; with soralia; apothecia 1-2 mm diameter, sessile, marginate, black (in T. viridescens (Schrader) Coppins & P. James), dark gray-green, pink, brown, or variegated (T. granulosa F5) or pink-brown to green-gray (in T. wallrothii); hymenium I+ blue; paraphyses much-branched, anastomosed, coherent; spores 7-14 x 2.5-6 Ám ......Trapeliopsis (4 spp.)

37. Parasitic on Candelariella vitellina ......Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel

37. Not parasitic on another lichen ......38

38. On rock and/or soil ......39

38. On bark, wood, moss ......50

39. Chiefly on soil; apothecia black, or gray, brown, or variegated ......40

39. Chiefly on rock; apothecia black, rarely yellow or flesh-colored ......44

40. Ascospores with an outer perispore (in Mycobilimbia hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner); 3- or more-septate (M. sabuletorum (Schreber) Hafellner) or not; crust pale; apothecia globose; red-brown hypothecium, pale brown epithecium; proper exciple is thin, ▒ persistent, pale near surface in section ......Mycobilimbia (3 spp.) (see also 53)

40. Ascospores thin-walled, without outer layer ......41

41. Crust dark greenish-brown or ashy ......42

41. Crust pale 43 (3 choices)

42. Squamulose; black apothecia, with proper margin soon disappearing; red-brown epithecium, hyaline hypothecium, no oil droplets in spores ......Lecidoma demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider & Hertel

42. Crustose, effuse, subgelatinous; apothecia black, with brown proper exciple, reflexed, disappearing, C-; brown epithecium, red-brown hypothecium; oil droplets in spores; branched, anastomosing paraphyses ......Placynthiella (3 spp.) (some species of Lecidea sensu stricto also may have dark, brown crusts)

43. On soil and pebbles, chinky areolate, southern California; black apothecia with thin proper exciple; hypothecium pale or dusky; spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 9-12 x 6-7 Ám ......Lecidea subplebeja Vainio

43. On soil, tending to large squamules

see Trapeliopsis 36, 55

43. On soil, areolate or minute squamules; black or flesh-colored apothecia with proper exciple (sometimes also a thalline exciple?), hyaline epithecium, hyaline to brown hypothecium; branched, anastomosing paraphyses ......Trapelia (3 spp.) (see also 46, 55)

44. Apothecia yellow or orange 45

44. Apothecia mostly black ......46 (3 choices) (If squamulose, see Psorula, 36)

45. Apothecia yellow; poorly developed proper exciple; pale epithecium, undefined; pale hypothecium; spores may be tear-drop-shaped; thallus yellow to yellow-green, leprose ......Psilolechia lucida (Ach.) M. Choisy

45. Apothecia orange, with proper exciple, pale inside; hypothecium hyaline or pale brown; thallus smooth, greenish gray to yellowish ......Hymenelia epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni

46. Epithecium hyaline ......Trapelia (3 spp.) (see also 43)

46. Epithecium blue-black or blue-purple, purple pigment K+ green; brown to dark gray crust with black hypothallus (Schaereria fuscocinerea (Nyl.) Clauzade & Roux), rarely soraliate; proper exciple brown, pale inside, soon disappearing; spores globose to short-ellipsoid, 12-16 x 5-6 Ám ......Schaereria (2 spp.) (see also 55)

46. Epithecium green, brown, or blue, not K+ green ......47

47. Exciple or hypothecium carbonized (dark, opaque), or dark brown 48 (3 choices)

Exciple not dark brown or carbonized ......49 (3 choices)

48. Ascospores large (10-20 x 6-12 Ám), with thick perispore ......Porpidia (6 spp.)

48. Ascospores smaller (8-12 x 4-6 Ám) with a thin, gelatinized perispore ......Clauzadea monticola

(Ach. ex Schaerer) Hafellner & Bellem.

48. Ascospores thin-walled, lacking perispore, 16-24 x 11-15 Ám (smaller in parasitic species), becoming brown with age ......Rimularia (2 spp.)

49. Granular or warty crust, white or pale green-gray, shiny; apothecia dull yellow to tan, convex to globose, immarginate; hypothecium pale tan; spores unicellular or 1-septate ......Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr. (see also 58)

49. Brown crust; black flat to sunken apothecia, gyrose or umbonate in some spp.; black proper exciple; hypothecium colorless; paraphyses branched; spores unicellular, ellipsoid, with a plasma bridge ......Miriquidica (2 spp.)

49. Continuous to areolate crust, usually gray; apothecia black or various colors, immersed to sessile; proper exciple, the outer layer being brown, the inside pale; hymenium usually I+ blue; hypothecium variable in color; paraphyses usually unbranched, with pigmented tips; ascospores hyaline, unicellular, and ellipsoid or globose, with a central plasma bridge ......Lecidea sensu stricto (of 47 spp., the majority occurring on rock)

(from 38: on bark, wood, or moss)

50. On moss or plant debris ......51

50. On bark or wood ......54

51. Thallus dark brown ......52

51. Thallus pale ......53

52. Apothecia red-brown to black, convex, clustered, tuberculate; spores with thick wall, gelatinous sheath ......Japewia tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg (see also 58)

52. Apothecia red-brown to black, sessile, not clustered; ascospores unicellular to 1-septate, each containing 1 to several oil droplets ......Placynthiella (3 spp.) (see also 42, 55)

53. Often sorediate; algal cells often paired; apothecia tiny, pale, 0.1-0.5 mm diameter; emarginate; paraphyses branched ......Micarea (5 spp.) (see also 57)

53. Not sorediate; algal cells not in pairs; apothecia gray, brown, or black, globose, clustered; marginate in some spp.; unbranched paraphyses; ascospores lacking perispore ......Mycobilimbia berengeriana (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth; M. hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner (the latter with a warty perispore)

54. Apothecia with margin or exciple 55 (5 choices)

54. Apothecia lacking margin or exciple, some biatorine ......56

55. Crust dark olive-brown; oil droplets in ascospore ......Placynthiella

55. Crust of white to cream squamules; spore lacking oil droplets ......Trapeliopsis

55. Crust areolate to tiny squamules; red-brown apothecia, pale epithecium, hypothecium hyaline to brown; paraphyses branched ......Trapelia

55. Crust areolate, gray; epithecium green, blue, or brown; hypothecium hyaline to brown; paraphyses unbranched ......Lecidea sensu stricto

(of 47 spp., a minority occurring on bark or wood; see 49)

55. On bark, dark brown punctiform soralia, proper exciple brown to greenish, epihymenium green to violet, violet pigment K+ green, green pigment K 

......Schaereria corticola Muhr & Tønsberg

56. Thallus granular, often sorediate ......57

56. Thallus sometimes granular, but not sorediate ......58

57. Apothecia red, tan, red-brown, black; spores brown when old ......Pyrrhospora (5 spp.) (see also F5)

57. Apothecia tiny, pale, 0.1-0.5 mm diameter, emarginate; spores not turning brown; branched paraphyses ......Micarea

58. Granular or warty crust, white or pale green-gray, shiny; apothecia dull yellow to tan, black, or red-brown, convex to globose, immarginate; hypothecium pale tan to brown; spores unicellular or 1-septate, thin-walled ......Biatora (6 spp.)

58. Dark greenish-brown crust; apothecia red-brown to black, convex, clustered, tuberculate; spores with thick wall, gelatinous sheath

Japewia tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg


Note: Ascocarps may be present occasionally in some taxa, but usually these taxa are found in sterile condition.

1. Photobiont a blue-green alga (a cyanobacterium); black gelatinous thallus 2
1. Photobiont a green alga ......3

2. Alga Gloeocapsa; cortex undifferentiated, paraplectenchymatous throughout; if urceolate apothecia or pore-like disks are present, hymenium I+ blue or red-brown; apical dome of asci I+ blue ......Pyrenopsis (3 spp.)

2. Alga Chroococcidiopsis (Xanthocapsa); cortex differentiated, paraplectenchymatous; if urceolate apothecia or pore-like disks are present, asci are thin-walled, I-, lacking apical thickening; rhizines present ......Psorotichia (4 spp.)

3. Thallus granulose/powdery, poorly organized ......4

3. Thallus a distinct crust, soraliate or not ......6 White podetia present ......Leprocaulon (2 spp.)

4. Crust lacking podetia 5 (3 choices)

5. Yellow crust ......Chrysothrix (bright yellow; ......2 spp.), or Pyrrhospora (ochraceous; 5 spp.) Crust of light blue granules, on soil ...... Trapeliopsis granulosa (Hoffm.) Lumbsch

5. Crust greenish or gray ......Lepraria

(thallus of spherical granules, covered with entangled hyphae; 4 spp.)

6. Thallus bright yellow; apothecia present; taste not bitter ......Candelariella (8 spp.)

6. Thallus greenish to gray 7 (3 choices)

7. Crust gray, smooth to warty or cracked; taste very bitter; closely attached; soredia present ......Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl.

7. Tiny green shell-like squamules; no bitter taste; soredia may be present ......Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl.

7. Thallus gray-white crust ......8

8. White prothallus, inconspicuous pruinose apothecia may be present; rhizoids below; K+ yellow to red, P+ orange ......Phlyctis argena (Sprengel) Flotow

8. Grayish prothallus or none; thallus C+ red ......Ochrolechia androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold (thick, shiny thallus with yellowish soralia), or O. arborea (Kreyer) Almb. (small orbicular thalli, thin at edge, with small greenish soralia)


Adapted from Goward et al. (1994) and Hale (1979).

1. Photobiont blue-green; upper side brown, black, gray, or blue-gray ......2

1. Photobiont green; upper side various ......6

2. Thallus attached by central holdfast, on vertical rock faces in arid areas ......Peltula euploca (Ach.) Poelt

2. Thallus not attached centrally ......3

3. Soredia beginning on underside of lobes ......Pannaria (5 spp.; some nearly crustose)

3. Not sorediate; on rock, soil, or moss ......4

4. Black contrasting hypothallus present ......5

4. Hypothallus pale or none, on rock; olive-brown squamules attached with wefts of hyphae; apothecia sunken ......Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.

5. On bark and wood ......Parmeliella

5. On rock ......Placynthium nigrum (Hudson) Gray

6. Upper surface has tiny black dots, pycnidia or perithecia ......7

6. Upper surface lacking black dots ......12

7. On soil or moss ......8

7. On rock ......10

8. Squamules raised, attached on one side; lower surface ▒ pale, easily seen from above ......Cladonia (35 spp.)

8. Squamules appressed ......9

9. Strong red-brown (to pale gray or gray brown in alpine areas) ......Catapyrenium (14 spp.; see also key C)

9. Various dull colors, not strong red-brown ......Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig (9 spp.)

10. Lobes upright, dark brown, not pruinose ......Endocarpon pulvinatum Th. Fr.

10. Lobes not upright, pale brown to pale gray, ▒ pruinose ......11

11. Upper side pruinose, or if not, lower side dark ......Dermatocarpon (7 spp.)

11. Not pruinose; lower side pale brown ......Acarospora (35 spp., of which many are squamulose)

12. Squamules with raised edges, attached at one side; whitish or grayish when dry, opaque, pale below; associated with upright podetia that are not always present; not overlapping shelves on dead or burnt wood ......Cladonia (35 spp.)

12. Squamules either green and shell-like, shelves on dead wood, brownish or more or less convex ......13

13. Tiny, jade green shell-like squamules; sorediate; rare

......Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl.

13. Squamules different in color ......14

14. On dead or burnt wood; squamules shelf-like, often overlapping ......Hypocenomyce (5 spp.; see key E 2, G 14), or Waynea californica Moberg (olivaceous squamules, no lower cortex, stipitate soralia)

14. On soil, moss, or over rock ......15

15. Upper surface green-gray to yellow-brown dry, green wet; lower side covered with short pale hairs; apothecia and cephalodia frequent ......Psoroma hypnorum (Vahl) Gray

15. Upper surface black, white, brown, gray, or pink, on soil or occasionally directly on rock 16

16. Lobes strongly convex, spores hyaline ......Toninia (9 spp.)

16. Lobes concave or partly convex, spores hyaline or brown ......17

17. Lobes white, gray or pale yellow, overlapping; medulla C+ red; coastal ......Trapeliopsis wallrothii (Flörke) Hertel & Gotth. Schneider

17. Lobes brown or pink; squamule edges often raised; apothecia often present; mostly inland species ......Psora (10 spp.)


Acarospora (D, G), Amandinea (E), Anisomeridium (C), Arthonia (B), Arthopyrenia (C), Arthothelium (B), Arthrosporum (E), Aspicilia (D), Bacidia (E), Bacidina (E), Bactrospora (E), Bellemerea (D), Biatora (E), Biatorella (E), Buellia (E), Calicium (A), Caloplaca (D, E), Candelariella (D, F), Carbonea (E), Catapyrenium (G), Catillaria (E), Catinaria (E), Catolechia (E), Chaenotheca (A), Chiodecton ( B), Chrysothrix (F), Cladidium (D), Cladonia (G), Clauzadea (E), Cliostomum (E), Coccotrema (D), Coniocybe (A), Cresponea (E), Cyphelium (A), Dactylospora (E), Dermatocarpon (C, G), Dimelaena (D), Dimerella (D, E), Diploschistes (D), Diplotomma (E), Dirina (B), Endocarpon (C, G), Fellhanera (E), Fulgensia (D, E), Glypholecia (D), Graphina (B), Graphis (B), Gyalecta (E), Haematomma (D), Hassea (C), Heppia (D, G), Heterocarpon (C), Hymenelia (E), Hypocenomyce (E, G), Icmadophila (D), Ionaspis (E), Japewia (E), Kirschsteiniothelia (C), Lecanactis (E), Lecania (D), Lecanographa (D), Lecanora (D), Lecidea (E), Lecidella (E), Lecidoma (E), Lepraria (F), Leprocaulon (F), Lichenothelia (D), Lobothallia (D), Lopadium (E), Loxospora (D), Maronea (D), Megaspora (D), Melaspilea (B), Metamelaena (E), Micarea (E), Microcalicium (A), Microglaena (C), Miriquidica (E), Mobergia (D), Mycobilimbia (E), Mycoblastus (E), Mycocalicium (A), Mycoporum (C), Normandina (F, G), Ochrolechia (D, F), Omphalina (p. 1) Opegrapha (B), Ophioparma (D, E), Pannaria (G), Parmeliella (G), Peltula (D, G), Pertusaria (C, D, F), Phaeocalicium (A), Phaeographis (B), Phaeorrhiza (D), Phlyctis (D, F), Placopsis (D), Placynthiella (E), Placynthium (E, G), Pleopsidium (D), Polyblastia (C), Polyblastiopsis (C), Polysporina (E), Porina (C), Porpidia (E), Protoparmelia (D), Pseudosagedia (C), Psilolechia (E), Psora (E, G), Psoroma (G), Psorotichia (D, F), Psorula (E), Pyrenocollema (C), Pyrenopsis (E, F), Pyrenula (C), Pyrrhospora (E, F), Ramonia (E), Rhizocarpon (E), Rhizoplaca (D), Rimularia (E), Rinodina (D), Roccellina (B, D), Sarcogyne (E), Schaereria (E), Schismatomma (D), Sclerophyton (B), Scoliciosporum (E), Sigridea (D), Solenopsora (D), Sphinctrina (A), Sporastatia (E), Staurothele (C), Stenocybe (A), Strangospora (E), Strigula (C), Tephromela (D), Texosporium (A), Thelenella (C), Thelidium (C), Thelocarpon (C, D), Thelomma (A), Thelopsis (C), Thelotrema (D), Thrombium (C), Tomasellia (C), Toninia (E, G), Trapelia (E), Trapeliopsis (E, F, G), Trimmatothele (C), Verrucaria (C), Waynea (G),Xylographa (B).

Literature cited

Esslinger, T. and R. Egan. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98: 467-549.

Fink, B. 1935. The Lichen Flora of the United States. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 426 pp. Pls. 1-47.

Goward, T., B. McCune and D. Meidinger. 1994. The Lichens of British Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 1-- Foliose and Squamulose Species. Ministry of Forests Research Program, Victoria, B.C., Canada.

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to Know the Lichens. W.C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 246 pp. Second edition.

Purvis, O.W., B.J. Coppins, D.L. Hawksworth, P.W. James and D.M. Moore (eds.). 1992. The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. British Lichen Society, Natural History Museum Publications, London. 710 pp.

Staiger, B., and K. Kalb. 1995. Haematomma-studien. I. Die Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 59: 1-198.

Tucker, S. and W.P. Jordan. 1979 (1978). A catalog of California lichens. Wasmann Journal of Biology 36: 1-105.

Lichens from the "Record of Decision for Amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents within the Range of the Northern Spotted Owl" Known from the Point Reyes National Seashore, the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Mt. Tamalpais State Park with Notes on other Lichens from the Record of Decision

Darrell Wright

4517 Valley West Blvd., #C,

Arcata, CA 95521

This list, taken in part from materials for a macrolichen flora of Marin County, was requested by Ms. Kim Cooper, National Park Service vegetation specialist at the Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California, in connection with the Federal Forest Plan mandated by the Clinton administration for management of the habitat of the Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis (the northern race of this threatened species). According to Ms. Cooper, Marin County with its comparatively high density of spotted owls is a refuge for this rare species, so that management for protection of the owl in Marin County is especially important. Such management calls for protection of the entire habitat with all its biota, including the lichens.

Only collections from areas which come under the provisions of the Forest Plan are cited: these are the Point Reyes National Seashore (PR), the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) and Mt. Tamalpais State Park. All collections were made by me and are in my personal herbarium. Nomenclature follows T. Esslinger and R. Egan, A Sixth Checklist of the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous, and Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada, The Bryologist 98: 467-549, 1995, and on-line revisions.

Bryoria spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw.:

When this species was described it was thought to be restricted to Pinus contorta ssp. contorta dune forest on the Samoa Peninsula west of Eureka, Humboldt County (Brodo and Hawksworth 1977). However, I just received a report that Bruce McCune has found it in a dune forest near Coos Bay, Oregon. If the birds which presumably disperse B. spiralifera prefer the dune forests of the North Coast, the species is unlikely to be found in Marin County, which has no dune forests and lies outside the range of Pinus contorta (Griffin and Critchfield 1972).

Buellia oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck.:

On bark of Salix in "Horsetail Canyon" off Walker Creek southeast of Tomales, 5197, 2.vii.1994. It might be expected at Point Reyes and in the GGNRA. A greenish gray areolate crust with prominent, initially concave, later strongly convex lecideine apothecia. The proper margin is excluded in age. A black prothallus may be present. Spores are brown, 49 x 24Ám, and muriform with 3 cross walls and 1 longitudinal wall.

Calicium glaucellum Ach. (PR):

On dead, decorticate Pinus muricata on Mt. Vision Rd. ca. 1.6 km from Sir Francis Drake Blvd., 3525, 3.xi.1988. Material collected by Charis Bratt from this population was identified by Leif Tibell. Tiny, black, tack-like fruiting bodies, spores extruded from the apothecium in a mass (mazaedium).

Collema nigrescens (Hudson) DC. (PR):

On Baccharis at the Mt. Vision "hot spot" (a locality in which an unusually large number of species are present or where one or more species is unusually abundant; usage adopted from S. Sillett, poster at Humboldt State University discussing Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis), 4168, 18.viii.1990 (see Pannaria rubiginosa below). Upper surface with small blisters.

Dendriscocaulon intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen (PR):

Reported (as "D. intricatum") from conifer bark "in the small pygmy [cypress] forest off Little Lake Road", Mendocino, Mendocino County, by J. Malachowski (1975). If it prefers conifers on impoverished soils, it might be found on the stunted Pinus muricata on podzol-like soil on the east side of Mt. Vision (access by the fire road which contours south from the top of Perth Way, Inverness). See Kaernefeltia californica below.

Fuscopannaria leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P.M. Jørg. (In list as Pannaria leucostictoides Ohlsson) :

What is presumably this species was found once in oak-madrone woodland on Big Rock Ridge south of Novato, 4507, 1.ii.1992. It might be expected on Mt. Tamalpais. Small gray foliose species with light, 0.5 mm orangish brown disks. The pruinose lobes have dissected margins. Might be mistaken for a Physcia except for the color of the disks and the photobiont which is blue-green rather than green.

Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt (GGNRA, PR):

Fairly common on moss on tree branches in Olema Valley (Copper Mine Gulch, on fallen Umbellularia trunks, 1806, 28.iii.1987) and about the Point Reyes peninsula (Sky Trail, 1.6 km west of the Bear Valley Trail, on dead, fallen wood beneath Pseudotsuga menziesii, 3464, 30.vii.1988). Pale gray to green foliose species with narrow, elongate lobes which are white and sorediate below and have long, black, marginal cilia.

Hypotrachyna revoluta (Flörke) Hale:

Closest approach to Marin County of which I know is at the Joy Road "hot spot" (see Collema nigrescens) not far north of the Marin-Sonoma county line, on moss on an old fallen fencepost, 5008, 25.xi.1993. Apparently rare in northern California. Small gray foliose species with narrow, eciliate lobes; light chestnut disks; soredia marginal and laminal, mixed with pustular outgrowths; lobe margins in part turned under; rhizines dichotomously branched; C+ red.

Kaernefeltia californica (Tuck.) Thell & Goward (in list as Cornicularia californica [Tuck.] Du Rietz, PR):

On stunted Pinus muricata on podzol-like soil, fire road extension contouring south from the end of Perth Way, 1.6 km beyond the pavement, Inverness, 4189, 3.ix.1990. Apparently confined to these pines, which were damaged by fire fighting equipment during the Point Reyes fire of 1995 (this spot was not burned). Fertile fruticose species with pale brown to olive branches and subterminal apothecia with olive green to nearly black disks. Bryoria furcellata is also present here.

Lobaria hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.:

This uncommon to rare species of oak woodland is in Humboldt and Mendocino Counties (for example, on the Bell Springs Road) but does not seem to reach the San Francisco Bay Area.

Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (PR, Mt. Tamalpais State Park):

Known to me from 5 localities in Marin County, this species flourishes in the Arroyo Hondo, 3693, 26.xi.1988, at the southern end of Inverness Ridge (seaward side), 1.6 km northwest from the road to Point Reyes Bird Observatory. It grows on mossy bark of Acer macrophyllum with Nephroma resupinatum, (see below), and Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis. It is abundant on just one Umbellularia trunk, as far as I saw, just outside the National Seashore boundary on the fire road on the east side of Mt. Vision about one mile south of Perth Way. There is a small population on the Lagunitas Fire Road to Potrero Meadows on Mt. Tamalpais, 4330, 13.iv.1991, where it grows on the exposed root of a live oak. Bill Hill and I saw a few thalli in hardwood-conifer woods on Bolinas Ridge a short distance north of the Bolinas-Fairfax Road (Kent Lake drainage). Other populations are on private property, including one in Redwood Canyon on Big Rock Ridge just south of Novato. The situation in Marin contrasts sharply with that in western Sonoma County, where L. pulmonaria is much more plentiful, as on oaks on the Stewarts Point-Skaggs Springs Road west of Geyserville.

Lobaria scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. (Mt. Tamalpais State Park):

In Marin I know this from a single population on the face of a large rock shaded by trees on Ridgecrest Blvd., Bolinas Ridge, 4.8 km north of Rock Springs, Mt. Tamalpais, 600 m elevation, 5149, 30.v.1994. It is not rare in Lake County to the north (for example, Lake Pillsbury) or in Santa Cruz County to the south (for example, Castle Rock State Park). Unlike L. pulmonaria, this species has a peculiar yellowish cast and is only weakly ridged above, the white spots in the tomentum below are not raised, and the photobiont is blue-green.

Nephroma laevigatum Ach. (PR, Mt. Tamalpais State Park):

See under Pannaria rubiginosa. Found also on the International Trail on Mt. Tamalpais, 685 m elevation, 5100, 16.iv.1994, on bark of Quercus and Umbellularia, also with Lobaria pulmonaria on the Lagunitas Fire Rd. to Potrero Meadows, 4331, 13.iv.1991. Uncommon to rare in Marin, but the least rare Nephroma. Brown upper surface; dark red-brown apothecia on the underside of the lobe tips; yellow pigment in medulla (K+ red), usually conspicuous.

Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach.:

I have a fragmentary collection which is probably this species from rock on the southwest side of Oat Hill north of Lake Alpine, 5631, 20.x.1995. It has a rugulose, reddish brown lower surface and black soredia on the margins as well as in round laminal soralia. It is on Marin Municipal Water District lands but is not far from Mt. Tamalpais State Park. Found just once. Does not seem to have been reported previously from the San Francisco Bay Area.

Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach. (PR):

Found just once in Marin County, in the Arroyo Hondo, southern Point Reyes National Seashore, 3696, 26.xi.1988. Lower surface with white spots in the tomentum. See Lobaria pulmonaria above. Evidently commoner further north.

Pannaria rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory (PR):

Found once at the "hot spot" (see above under Collema nigrescens) on Mt. Vision Rd. at an elevation of 275 m about 1.6 km from Sir Francis Drake Blvd., 4171, 18.viii.1990, where it grew on Baccharis in a foggy draw (fog track) with Pinus muricata woods on either side. Also present were Sticta limbata, Collema nigrescens, Parmotrema chinense and abundant Nephroma laevigatum. This is the only Marin locality known to me for the Pannaria and the only place where I have found Nephroma abundant.

Peltigera collina (Ach.) Schrader (PR):

Occasional on soil banks or moss on bark, Pine Gulch Creek, 1 km south of its confluence with Copper Mine Creek ("Box Elder Flat"), Olema Valley, 3270, 19.iii.1988; Lagunitas Fire Rd. to Potrero Meadows, 0.2 km north of Ridgecrest Blvd., Mt. Tamalpais, 4329, 13.iv.1991. Marginal soralia above, dark veins in pale tomentum below.

Pseudocyphellaria anomala Brodo & Ahti:

Occasional, often with P. anthraspis. I have it from the Elliott Nature Preserve near Fairfax and the Arroyo San Jose south of Novato: it should be expected in the GGNRA. Bluish soredia on ridges on brown upper surface; tiny, unrimmed pores (pseudocyphellae) on pale, finely tomentose lower surface. Not found fertile by me in Marin County.

Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis (Ach.) H. Magn. (PR):

Occasional in dry woodland as well as in more mesic places, 3695, 26.xi.1988, Arroyo Hondo. Network of pits on brown upper surface; tiny, unrimmed pores in pale, finely tomentose lower surface. Usually fertile, occasionally sterile, but then without any tendency to be sorediate.

Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis Imshaug:

Not known as yet from California. According to S. Sillett (Humboldt State University, personal communication, iii.1998), the most likely place for it would be the Smith River drainage in Del Norte County; Marin County is likely to be well south of its range. P. rainierensis is distinguished from all other North American Pseudocyphellaria species by having a green algal primary photobiont with a cyanobacterial photobiont confined to internal cephalodia (Sillett and Goward 1998). I have seen material of P. rainierensis at Humboldt State University with a gross resemblance to forms of P. anthraspis in which the cortex is weakly reticulately pitted.

Pyrrhospora quernea (Dickson) Körber (PR):

On Pinus muricata at the Kaernefeltia californica locality, (see above), 5162, 4.vi.1994; on planted Pinus radiata on Sunset Way, Muir Beach, 1981b, 18.iv.1987. Frequent on fences and other lignum in west Marin. A yellowish granular crust with purplish to black, lecideine disks which bleed red when KOH is applied.

Ramalina pollinaria (Westr.) Ach. (PR):

Rather rare in Marin County. On dead, fallen Umbellularia on the Arroyo Hondo fire road 150 m from the road to Point Reyes Bird Observatory, southern Point Reyes National Seashore, 4482, 26.x.1991. A small Ramalina with narrow lobes which are sorediate on the inside of burst tips.

Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl.:

The only locality so far known for California is on the road from Cazadero to Fort Ross, Sonoma County (Sanders 1997). William Sanders advises watching for it, and I would think Point Reyes would be a real possibility. Branch tips recurved to inrolled. Easily overlooked among the other fruticose species with which it grows and detected most readily under the dissecting microscope. A detailed illustration is in American Arctic Lichens, I. The Macrolichens, by John Thomson (Columbia University Press, 1984, p. 382).

Sticta fuliginosa (Hoffm.) Ach. (PR):

Occasional on mesic sites on bark and soil banks, 4166, 18.viii.1990, on Baccharis at the Mt. Vision "hot spot" (see above under Collema nigrescens). Abundant, tiny, black isidia on dark brown upper surface; rimmed pores (cyphellae) on lower surface.

Sticta limbata (Sm.) Ach. (PR, Mt. Tamalpais State Park):

Found twice in Marin, on Baccharis at the Mt. Vision "hot spot" (see above under Collema nigrescens), 4167, 18.viii.1990; on moss on rock, Bolinas Ridge north of Rock Springs, 5145, 30.v.1994. Rimmed pores (cyphellae) on lower surface, soredia on margins of lobes.

Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norman (PR):

Rare in Marin County as in the rest of California. On dead Baccharis branches west of the marsh at the east end of the Estero, Limantour Beach, 2288, 2.vii.1987; on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus on a tributary of the fire road above Perth Way, Inverness, 2 km from the end of the Perth Way pavement, 4198, 3.ix.1990. Scattered in this area, especially on the Nature Conservancy property 0.4 km further south. Sorediate orange fruticose species: T. chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr. and T. exilis (Michaux) Vainio, also present in Marin County, have apothecia and are not sorediate.

Tholurna dissimilis (Norman) Norman:

Not much reported from the U.S. Earlier known in North America only from high montane situations in Canada, Washington and central Oregon (1 population), it was found in 1978 by a helicopter survey in the top of a spruce on the coast of Vancouver Is., B.C., Canada, at 150 m elevation (Otto 1983). There was an unconfirmed report from small conifer twigs possibly in Mendocino County (fide I. Tavares, University of California Herbarium). It might turn up at Point Reyes. Detect it by holding a small branch (fallen from high in the tree?) up to the light so that the tiny bottle-shaped apothecia may be seen in silhouette.

Usnea longissima Ach.:

The closest population to Marin County known to me is near Salt Point State Park, Sonoma County (Doell 1994). This lichen of the redwood zone in California is also in San Mateo County (Doell 1997). It is less rare further north, as in Humboldt County, where it occurs erratically in the Mattole region. Might be found in the Pseudotsuga menziesii forests of Bolinas and Inverness Ridges. The length to 3 m or more, the fibrils at right angles to the branches, the flexuousness and the cross-draped thalli (Ramalina menziesii does not do this) are good macrocharacters. With a lens, verify crumbling cortex on main branches, I+ blue axis (see Tavares 1997).

Usnea subgracilis Vainio (in list as U. hesperina Mot.) (PR):

Found just outside the Point Reyes National Seashore on Inverness Ridge within the Vedanta Retreat south of Bear Valley (an inclusion of private property within the Seashore boundaries), altitude 365 m, 5006, 20.xi.1993. More green than yellow-green; cortex thick (18%), verrucose, isidiose; medulla white, a thin (9%) fuzz on a massive (45%) white axis; K-, PD+ (indication of protocetraric acid by TLC); annular cracks coarse, the better developed ones white-margined. For a discussion of the nomenclature, see the new preliminary key (Tavares 1997, p. 22, note 3).

Vermilacinia cephalota (Tuck.) Spjut & Hale (in list as Niebla cephalota (Tuck.) Bowler & Rundel) (PR):

On bark of Salix on the road from Upper Pierce Ranch to McClure's Beach, 3799, 8.iv.1989. Occasional, reaching further inland than other Vermilacinia or Niebla species and also the only one on bark and lignum. Round lobes with sharply delimited elliptic soralia which are usually bluish (parasitized?). The author would prefer to report this species in Niebla until an evaluation of the recent generic split (Spjut 1996) has been published. It is reported here in Vermilacinia because of previous use of that name by the Bulletin.

Literature cited

Brodo, I.M. and D.L. Hawksworth. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164.

Doell, J. 1994. Sonoma/Mendocino County field trip. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 1(2): 2 -3.

. 1997. Usnea longissima Ach. in San Mateo County. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4: 6.

Griffin, J.R. and W.B. Critchfield. 1972. The Distribution of Forest Trees in California. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, California. USDA Forest Service Research Paper PSW-82. 114 pp.

Malachowski, J.A.. 1975. Macrolichens of the Pygmy Forests. California State University, Chico (unpublished master's thesis).

Otto, G.F. 1983. Tholurna dissimilis well established in western North America. The Bryologist 86: 263-265.

Sanders, W. 1997. Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl. in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4: 6.

Spjut, R.W. 1996. Niebla and Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae) from California and Baja California. Sida, Botanical Miscellany 14: 1-208.

Sillett, S.C. and T. Goward. 1998. Ecology and conservation of Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis, a Pacific Northwest endemic lichen. Pp. 377-388. In M.G. Glenn et al. (eds.), Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon, Ltd., Ithaca, N.Y.

Tavares, I.I. 1997. A preliminary key to Usnea in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4: 19-23.

Information on How to Grow Lichens

Several CALS members have asked about how to encourage lichens to grow. The British Lichen Society has a four page printout on this subject, entitled "Lichens on man-made surfaces. Encouragement and removal." It is available free of charge from the following address:

Mr. W.G.R. Stevens,

29 Limerick Road, Redland,


e-mail: wstevens@cix.co.uk

If you have access to a World Wide Web browser, however, it will be faster and cheaper to connect to the British Lichen Society Web page, where you can download the text of this and other documents, and learn the scope of the activities of the BLS. The URL is


San Francisco Watershed Field Trip,

31 January, 1998

Mikki McGee

200 Monterey St.

Brisbane, CA 94005

The San Francisco Watershed, in which Crystal Springs Reservoir is situated, is located in the San Andreas Fault Rift Zone, which traverses the boundaries of the Franciscan (sandstone) Association and the Montara (diorite) block, in the Santa Cruz Mountain range of California, in San Mateo Co. The area visited is in the southeast part, upstream of the influx of Hetch-Hetchy aqueduct, adjacent to the Edgewood Preserve, at the corner of Edgewood and Cañada Roads in western Redwood City (USGS map, Woodside Quad.). It is traversed from south to north by West Union Creek, and encompasses mostly mixed Franciscan sandstone, serpentine rock and sand. The Montara Mountain block of diorite is located well downstream to the northwest, and hardly influences the area visited. (USGS map, Montara Quad.; Bailey et al. 1964.) The area is second growth mix of chaparral, redwood stands, Douglas fir, meadow, and mixed hardwoods. The main meadow area we visited is bounded by coast live oak stands and coastal scrub, with the usual association of corticolous lichens. Rocks collected in the meadow proved on washing to be serpentine fragments, well covered with clayey mud over and around the lichens. The route taken on the trip followed the Old Post Road. From there, the majority of the group proceeded up the mixed hardwood/poison oak slopes toward the Filoli Estates, uphill to the East, while others returned to (or had remained) near the entrance, for more intensive collecting in the coastal scrub/oaks and the roadside exposures of serpentine adjacent to Edgewood Preserve, southeast along Edgewood Road.

Present were Doris Baltzo, Mona Bourell, Charis Bratt, Susan Crutchfield, Janet Doell, Bill Hill, William Freedman (Mycological Society of San Francisco), Ann Knopf, Barbara Lachelt, Christine Lindquist, Mikki McGee, Judy Robertson, William Sanders, and David Toren.

The California Lichen Society has a long-term interest in documenting the lichen flora of California. We are particularly interested in areas where collections have been made previously, so that we can see how changing conditions, vegetation, and increasing human population have influenced the lichens. The request to survey the relatively unimpacted, protected San Francisco Watershed and the surrounding San Francisco State Fish and Game Refuge was welcome. We hope that the survey will provide the Water Department of San Francisco a useful addition to their inventories of the flora of the area.

History of lichen study in Watershed

The only work specifically dealing with the lichens of the Watershed was that of William Jordan, whose master's thesis, "Corticolous and Lignicolous Lichens of the San Francisco Watershed", (Jordan, 1968) is available at the Herbarium of San Francisco State University. Prior to Jordan's work, collections from the Watershed area were included in the publications of A.W.C.T. Herre dealing with the lichens of the Santa Cruz Peninsula (Herre, 1910; 1936). Before Herre, the Watershed may have been visited by H.N. Bolander, who collected lichens and other plants around San Francisco in the 1860's and 1870's.

The principal purpose of Jordan's study was to census the corticolous and lignicolous lichens. The secondary purpose was to compare his findings with those of Herre (1910). Jordan listed 126 species of lichens in 49 genera. Some of these were not treated in Herre (1910). Jordan found that, with respect to numbers of corticolous and lignicolous species, the Watershed rivaled the entire Santa Cruz Peninsula as studied by Herre. The Watershed, in short, was a region of high species diversity.

Site descriptions

1. Fieldstone gate facade; many kinds of stone (some local?), oriented N-S along Cañada Rd., opposite Edgewood. This decorative, apparently recent, structure is the gateway to one of the large estates in the area.

2. Sign Post; a painted, weathered, wooden sign 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 48 in., in the center of a small meadow.

3. Coast live oak, near Cañada Road. This occupied the southwest corner of the field in the Watershed property west of Cañada Road. An older tree with northwest exposure, and on the edge of the hedgerow.

4. Stones and soil, under oak. This is the vicinity of #3, with clayey soil and serpentine stones.

5. Boulders, first creek crossing. This area had live oak, boulders, grassy areas, and coyote brush. This number refers to specimens from the boulders, growing with moss and Cladonia.

6. Coast live oak, near boulders. Smaller than #3, but very similar.

7. Hummock to the northwest of the road crossing of West Union Creek. This was rather open scrub, including coyote brush, etc., and soil lichens were collected.

8. Various trees along trail. The trail wandered northward, through mixed hardwood and evergreen stands.

9. Roadside, alongside flooded meadow. The end of the trail for following the Post Road. Lunch. West of Filoli grounds. Mixed hardwoods, moderately open, banked roadside.

10. Oak along Filoli Loop.

11. Oak along Filoli Loop.

12. Dead tree along Filoli Loop.

13. Oak along Filoli Loop.

14. Oak, near corner of car park, Edgewood and Cañada Roads, outside the watershed proper. Larger and coarser barked than coast live oak.

15. Weathered serpentine outcrop 1/8 mi. E on Edgewood, adjacent to Edgewood Preserve. This was also in the Edgewood Road right of way, a low humped outcrop of very weathered, crumbly serpentine.

Nomenclature follows Esslinger and Egan (1995) or subsequent on-line revisions.

BH, Bill Hill; CB, Charis Bratt; DEB, Doris Baltzo ; DT, David Toren; JD, Janet Doell; JR, Judy Robertson; MM, Mikki McGee; WS, William Sanders

Acarospora sp., 5DEB dark brown

Aspicilia cf. caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold, 4MM (on fragment of serpentine; det. B. Ryan)

Aspicilia sp., 5DEB, green feathery hypothallus

Buellia cf. lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck., 7MM (on pebble, with Leptochidium)

Buellia cf. vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck., WS; det. I. Tavares (with Pannaria cf. rubiginosa)

Calicium sp., 11JR; 11(?)BH; (Thallus white, thin, on wood, K; pedicel black with clear sheath (I+red-brown), 0.1 x (1-3)mm.; Apothecium black, with white pruinose rim; spores 3-4 x 8-9 Ám, bilocular, minutely punctate)

Caloplaca cf. squamosa (de Lesd.) Zahlbr., 15MM (serpentine)

Caloplaca sp., 4,9,14MM (corticolous; thallus immersed or wanting)

Caloplaca sp., 5DEB, spores 14.4 x 4.8 Ám

Candelaria concolor (Dickson) Stein, 2,3,4,8DEB; 2JR; 9,14MM; 9BH

Catapyrenium sp. (identified in the field as Endocarpon) 4CB

Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr., 4DEB; 5JR

Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel, 5DEB

Cladonia furcata (Hudson) Schrader, 7JR; 11BH

Cladonia transcendens (Vainio) Vainio, 5MM

Cladonia sp., 5JR

Collema nigrescens (Hudson) DC., 10JR

Collema sp., 4JD (Thallus black [rarely brown], appressed, isidiose, cylindrical; phytobiont Nostoc; apothecia 0.3-0.7mm; disk dark brownish-black, exciple smooth; spores hyaline, muriform, septa thin, 9-13 x 20-25 Ám)

Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann, 1JR

Dimelaena sp., 15MM (serpentine)

Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig; 4JR (on soil, among liverworts)

Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., 3,7DEB; 9MM; 6BH

Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, 3JR; 3DEB; 9BH

Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirton) Hale, 2,7DEB

Fuscopannaria leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P.M. Jørg., 10JR

Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt, 2,7,8DEB; 6,14MM

Hypogymnia imshaugii Krog, 3JR

Hypogymnia cf. metaphysodes (Asah.) Rass., 3MM (according to B. Ryan, possibly a new species)

Hypogymnia sp., 2DEB

Hypogymnia sp., 3DEB (medulla dark)

Lecanora albella (Pers.) Ach. var. albella 12JR

Lecanora cf. caesiorubella Ach. subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo, 3DEB (spores: 14.4 x 7.2Ám)

Lecanora pacifica Tuck. 9BH; (no pruina, thallus with crystals; apothecia to 1.2mm (MM); det. B. Ryan)

Lecanora sp., 2DEB; 2JR

Leproloma sp., 3JR

Leptochidium albociliatum (Desmaz.) M. Choisy, (5?),7DEB; WS; 7MM

Melanelia subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl., 2DEB (7DEB - isidia and soralia small)

Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl., 9DT (in JR); 11BH

Ochrolechia subpallescens Vers., 3JR; 3,9MM; 9BH

Ochrolechia sp. (pallescens group), 3DEB (spores 40.8 x 26.4Ám)

Ochrolechia sp., 6,14MM

Pannaria cf. rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory, WS

Parmelia sulcata Taylor, 3JR; 3,4DEB; 9BH

Parmotrema chinense (Osbeck) Hale & Ahti, 10JR; WS; 6DEB

Peltigera canina (L.) Willd., 7JR

Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl., 3DEB(KC+red); 3 (oak), 7(buckeye)JR

Pertusaria cf. rubefacta Erichsen, 12JR

Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier, 1,9,14MM; 4DEB

Physcia dubia (Hoffm.) Lettau, 1BH,1MM

Physcia tenella (Scop.) DC. subsp. tenella, 3JR

Physconia isidiigera (Zahlbr.) Essl., 8JR; 2,3,14MM

Physconia sp., 4DEB

Platismatia glauca (L.) Culb. & C. Culb., 12JR

Pseudocyphellaria anomala Brodo & Ahti, 8JR; WS; 8MM in moss: Alsia californica, Dendroalsia sp.

Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog, 3JR,3DEB

Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., 6,7DEB; 6JR; 4,9,14MM; 9BH

Ramalina leptocarpha Tuck., 6,11BH

Ramalina menziesii Taylor, 6JR; 14MM; 7DEB (abundant [DEB])

Ramalina pollinaria (Westr.) Ach., 6JR

Ramalina puberulenta Riefner & Bowler, 2,4DEB; 2,14MM

Rinodina exigua (Ach.) Gray, 3JR

Staurothele sp., 5DEB (dark brown)

Sticta fuliginosa (Hoffm.) Ach., WS

Tephromela atra (Hudson) Hafellner, 4JR; 7DEB

Thelomma occidentale (Herre) Tibell, 2MM (det. MM, B. Ryan)

Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla (Willd.) Hale WS

Usnea arizonica Mot., 3,4DEB; 9BH (sterile, 2DEB)

Usnea californica Herre, WS; 7DEB(redwood); 9,11BH

Usnea cf. filipendula, 7DEB (redwood; isidiose, small papillae)

Usnea glabrata (Ach.) Vainio, 7DEB

Usnea cf. glabrata (Ach.) Vainio, 3DEB (sorediate, no papillae)

Usnea kujalae Räsänen, 7DEB (pale; inflated; axis narrow; papillae few, small to medium; soredia minute; medulla lax with long radiate hyphae; C7% M40% A10%; P+ orange [soredia, medulla] ); 7DEB (no isidia)

Usnea scabiosa Mot., WS

Usnea subfloridana Stirton, 3,7DEB

Usnea substerilis Mot., 3,7DEB

Usnea wirthii Clerc, 6JR; 3,7DEB

Usnea sp., 9MM

Usnea sp., 3JR

Vermilacinia cephalota (Tuck.) Spjut & Hale, 6MM; 6,7DEB

Waynea californica Moberg, 8JR; WS; 8MM; 8BH

Xanthoparmelia sp., 5DEB

Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Th. Fr. (?) 3,6,7,8DEB

Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arnold var. fallax, 3JR

Xanthoria cf. fulva (Hoffm.) Poelt & Petutschnig; 2,3,14MM fertile, rhizines, soredia (=blastidia) terminal/sub-terminal

Xanthoria cf. hasseana Räsänen (?) 6JR

Xanthoria polycarpa (Hoffm.) Rieber, 3JR; 4DEB; 9BH (as X. cf. ramulosa (Tuck.) Herre (?) 6JR)

Xanthoria sp., 2DEB

Results and summary

Four principal and several other collectors spent four hours or slightly more in a small area (about 1%) of the San Francisco Watershed, visiting half or less of the total habitat types. An estimated 18 collector hours yielded lichens of 87 taxa, 20 of which were identified only to genus. One of these unidentified collections is now in the hands of a specialist, and four or five more are intended to be sent to specialists. Several of these seem to be immature or otherwise indeterminable. In view of the limited scope of the collecting activity, the number of taxa is noteworthy. A few of the collectors feel that diligent search would produce significantly more taxa even in that limited area. Most of the material collected will be maintained in the following collections: personal herbarium of Doris Baltzo, Herbarium, University of California at Berkeley, and the California Academy of Sciences. Some of the duplicate material will be in the teaching collection at San Francisco State University. Limited specimens will be maintained temporarily as reference material by the collectors.


Members of the California Lichen Society wish to express their gratitude to the San Francisco Water Department for permission to enter the Watershed, and to Dr. William Freedman for arranging and leading the trip, explaining the history of the area, and arranging a fine break in the El Niño weather. We also express our regret that Shirley Tucker was not able to make the trip. This was a disappointment for those who hoped to see her again, especially for this recorder, who appreciates the wonderful lichens detected by her sharp eye and easily identified through her experience.

Literature cited and used for identification

Arup, U. 1995. Littoral species of Caloplaca in North America: a summary and a key. The Bryologist 98: 129-140.

Bailey, E.H., W.P. Irwin and D.L. Jones 1964. Franciscan and related rocks and their significance in the geology of western California. California Division of Mines & Geology. Bulletin 183.

Esslinger, T. and R. Egan 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98: 467-549.

Goward, T., B. McCune and D. Meidinger 1994. The Lichens of British Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 1-- Foliose and Squamulose Species. Ministry of Forests Research Program, Victoria, B.C., Canada.

Hale, M.E. and M. Cole 1988. Lichens of California, University of California Press. Berkeley.

Hammer, S. 1995. A synopsis of the genus Cladonia in the northwestern United States. The Bryologist 98: 1-28.

Herre, A. 1910. The lichen flora of the Santa Cruz peninsula, California. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Science 12(2):27-269.

. 1936. Our vanishing lichen flora. Madroño 3:198-200.

Jordan, W.P. 1968. Corticolous and Lignicolous Lichens of the San Francisco Watershed. Unpublished master's thesis. San Francisco State University.

Lindblom, L. 1997. The genus Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. in North America. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 83: 75-172.

Sigal, L.L. 1975. Lichens and Mosses of California Serpentine. Unpublished master's thesis. San Francisco State University.

Tavares, I.I. 1997. A preliminary key to Usnea in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4: 19-23.

Tibell, L. 1976. The genus Thelomma. Botaniska Notiser 129:221-249.

Volk, S.L. 1963. Crustose Lichen Flora of Marin County, California. Unpublished master's thesis. San Francisco State University.

The Red Spots of Usnea wirthii

William B. Sanders

University Herbarium, University of California at Berkeley

1001 Valley Life Sciences Bldg.

Berkeley, CA 94720-2465

The genus Usnea is notorious among the macrolichens for the difficulties presented in understanding and recognizing its species. The variability and frequent intergradation of characters have caused professionals and enthusiasts alike to throw up their hands and move on to other less frustrating lichens. However, some species of Usnea, at least as currently understood, are easy to learn to recognize. Usnea longissima Ach. is one example, although it is increasingly rare in California (Doell 1997). Usnea wirthii Clerc is another distinctive species, although it is less well known. Indeed, it was formally described, based on European material, only in the last decade (Clerc 1984) and formally reported for western North America just a few years ago (Clerc and Diederich 1991). This is particularly surprising since, while rare in Europe, the species is actually quite common throughout coastal California, as well as the Pacific Northwest (McCune and Geiser 1997). Its neglect might be explained in part by its small size combined with its typically sparse occurrence among larger and more abundant Usneas and other macrolichens. However, Usnea wirthii may on occasion cover branches in dense, almost pure stands, as it does, for example, on shrubs in the Oakland Hills (San Francisco Bay Region).

Usnea wirthii has two distinctive characteristics, which, while not unfailingly present, are extremely useful in recognizing the lichen in our area. These characters are the yellow pigment on the surface of the central cord, and the irregular scarlet-red spots in the outer cortex (Fig. 1). Although other thallus features, such as the eroding soralia, the shiny cortex, the lax medulla and narrow central cord are also characteristic, they are variable and may be present in other short sorediate Usneas, such as U. glabrata (Ach.) Vainio and members of the U. fragilescens Hav. ex Lynge group. The yellow cord and the red spots, however, do not seem to occur on any other Usnea in our area. Details of thallus characteristics are given in Tavares et al. 1998.

Red cortical pigmentation is not unusual in this genus. Usnea rubicunda develops extensive orange-red pigmentation in the outer cortex. Usnea subcornuta has an apparently similar pigment deeper within the cortex. Outside of California there are a host of other species with different and often characteristic distributions of red pigment within the cortex (Tavares, manuscript in preparation). Usnea cirrosa Mot. from Mexico often has a spot of red over the pycnidia, and sometimes a crown of tiny red spots around the rim of the apothecia (Tavares and Sanders 1998). However, the red spots of U. wirthii seem to be irregularly scattered, although they often seem to be concentrated on the side of the thallus facing the sun (see Tavares et al. 1998). They remind one of the familiar symptoms of measles or chicken pox, and indeed some observers have wondered whether the spots might be caused by some pathogenic agent.

The scarlet red of the Usnea wirthii spots is a clearly different color from the orange red seen in U. rubicunda (compare Figs. 2 & 3). It may well be a different type of pigment altogether, although no studies on these lichen pigments have yet been published. In both lichens the red pigment is found within the mycobiont cell wall material; however, the specific localization of the pigment is noticeably different in the two species. The red spot of U. wirthii occupies a diffuse area of wall material between cortical cell lumina (Fig. 2). Its deposition is not obviously associated with individual cells of the cortex. In U. rubicunda, by contrast, the pigment occurs in distinctive wall layers clearly associated with individual cells within the cortex (Fig. 3). The pigmented wall layers tend to be interior, lying near or at the cell lumen, such that the form of individual, hypha-like cells of the cortex are delimited and stand out from their unpigmented neighbors. Unless very thin sections are examined with high magnification, the pigment in U. rubicunda may actually appear to be in the cell cytoplasm.

Pigments produced within the chloroplasts of the lichen alga function in harvesting light for photosynthesis, and in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from damage by excessive radiation. Pigments produced by the lichen fungus have been far less studied, but in many cases are likely to serve a protective function. A number of secondary compounds found in the lichen cortex absorb significantly within the ultraviolet wavelengths that can cause damage to living cells. The possible photoprotective and photosynthesis-enhancing roles of lichen pigments are discussed in detail by Rikkinen (1995).

Many photoactive substances are capable of absorbing the invisible ultraviolet radiation and reradiating (fluorescing) it at longer wavelengths which are colors of the visible spectrum. Examining a cross section of U. wirthii with UV-epifluorescence microscopy reveals a variety of photoactive substances (Fig. 4). The algal cells, with their large quantities of chlorophylls and accessory photosynthetic pigments, fluoresce orange. The cortex shows a light greenish glow, and the central cord fluoresces bright yellow (Fig. 4), probably due to deposited secondary metabolites. All of these compounds may offer some protection against UV-light, since they can absorb and reradiate it as lower energy visible light. It is also possible that some of the reradiated visible light may be absorbed by algal chlorophyll and used in photosynthesis.

The red spots of Usnea wirthii do not fluoresce under the UV lamp. Instead they appear very black, even darker than the non-fluorescing parts of the sample which faintly reflect some visible light (Fig. 5). This indicates that the spots strongly absorb visible light, and possibly some of the UV wavelengths as well.

Could the red spots have a photoprotective or even a photosynthesis-enhancing role? Often the spots appear more concentrated on the side of the thallus exposed to the sun. But the total area of the spots seems much too small for such a function. Sometimes many rod-like particles less than 1 Ám long can be observed when the thallus is sectioned. These fall within the size range of certain bacteria, although no structure can be resolved with the light microscope. The presence of bacteria might suggest an explanation for the red spots, but the rod-like particles do not seem to correlate in distribution with the red spots. Electron microscopy is needed to determine if these particles are indeed bacteria. This would not, however, prove that the red spots are caused by bacteria (an experimental infection of unspotted thalli by the suspected pathogen would be necessary for proof). If the red spots are indeed the result of some disease, one would want to understand why the thalli otherwise appear to be healthy, and why such an overwhelming percentage are "afflicted" in our area without any other species being similarly affected.

Literature cited

Clerc, P. 1984. Usnea wirthii--new species of lichen from Europe and North Africa. Saussurea 15: 33-36.

Clerc, P. and P. Diederich. 1991. Usnea wirthii Clerc new to North America and the British Isles. Lichenologist 23: 405-407.

Doell, J. 1997. Usnea longissima Ach. in San Mateo County. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4: 6.

McCune, B. and L. Geiser. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 386 pp.

Rikkinen, J. 1995. What's behind the pretty colors? A study on the photobiology of lichens. Bryobrothera 4: 1-239.

Tavares, I.I. and W.B. Sanders. 1998. Preliminary report on the short, apotheciate taxa of Usnea in the southwestern United States. pp. 171-186 in: M.G. Glenn et al., eds., Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York.

Tavares, I.I., D.E. Baltzo, and D. Wright. 1998. Usnea wirthii in western North America. pp. 187-200 in: M.G. Glenn et al., eds., Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York.

Call for Collaborators

One of the attractions of lichenology is that it is a discipline in which the amateur can actually contribute to current research. Now an opportunity for input from CALS members has opened up, and I am hoping to persuade a number of you to become involved. Darrell Wright and I are interested in preparing a detailed report on the current status of Usnea longissima Ach. in California. This will provide a baseline for future monitoring and aid in our ultimate goal of arranging for some kind of protected status for this lichen.

Usnea longissima is one of the state's most distinctive lichens. A tall tree festooned with it and standing in the sunshine is truly a sight to behold. The individual strands, sometimes more than six feet long, have an unmistakable silver sheen because the main branches partly lack the cortex found on other pendulous lichens. Unfortunately this lichen is very susceptible to air pollution. This, together with habitat destruction, has taken its toll of U. longissima throughout its range in California.

I am calling on all CALS members to keep an eye out for U. longissima on your excursions into this range. Look for it in the northern half of the state along the coast and inland about 20 miles, roughly the same area where you find redwood trees. It is generally found on large trees, either conifers or broad-leaved species, and often at the edge of a ravine or canyon where the air is moving and there is adequate light.

For those of you who want to assist us in this survey, please include in your report the following information: date, geographic location, substrate species, surrounding vegetation, and altitude if available. Also, please include a short (4 to 5 in.) piece of the thallus for a voucher specimen. There should be a fragment on the ground. Don't attempt a dangerous climb to secure a specimen. Time-wise, our goal is to put together a progress report by the summer issue of the Bulletin in 1999. Let's see how many locations we can determine by then. I have volunteered to keep track of all these reports, so please mail them to:

Janet Doell

1200 Brickyard Way #302

Point Richmond, CA 94801

(510)236-0489 or e-mail: doell@slip.net

Aggressive Lichens, or Goodbye Cladonia

Janet Doell

1200 Brickyard Way #302

Point Richmond, CA 94801

Don't think for a moment that lichens, those slow growing, unobtrusive organisms, are all peace and serenity. In their own cautious way they also demonstrate greed for territory and sometimes sinister means of getting it. This became obvious to me over the past few years at Jasper Ridge, Stanford University's Biological Preserve in San Mateo County. Gradually the thalli of the Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel, growing on some greenstone rocks at the west end of the dam across Searsville Lake, were disappearing, to be replaced by Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant., a small grayish-white crustose species. Closer examination disclosed what looked like a regular invasion by the Diploschistes into the territory of the Cladonia. In the latter genus the primary thallus or body of the lichen consists of small leaf-like structures known as squamules. From a squamule a hollow stalk called a podetium develops. The podetium in C. chlorophaea and some other species has a cup-shaped tip. Red or brown apothecia (fruiting bodies) may form on the rim of the cup in different species. In other species there is no cup at all, and the podetium is branched or pointed. In the case of the Cladonia being discussed here, the gray podetia were being squeezed out by the encroaching invader, and the squamules were becoming covered by the thalli of the Diploschistes. In Chris Andrews's illustration of this encounter, (Fig. 1), the small, round disklike fruiting bodies of the Diploschistes are prolific and vigorous, while the solitary Cladonia podetium is stressed and about to succumb. The process we are witnessing here seems to be similar to that described by T. Friedl of the University of Bayreuth, Germany, in 1987. In Friedl's study, hyphae of the Diploschistes first invaded the squamules of the Cladonia and simultaneously the victim formed warty growths along its surface. These growths were packed with cells of the green alga Trebouxia irregularis, which is known to be favored by species of Cladonia. The Diploschistes used these cells as a photobiont (algal partner) in early development. Gradually this alga was replaced by Trebouxia showmanii, a species frequently found in Diploschistes. Although both species of alga could be present for a time, as the Diploschistes matured and the Cladonia died, the T. irregularis was entirely replaced by T. showmanii. The question is often posed about how developing lichen fungi find the alga required for the generation of the shape characteristic of the lichen. Diploschistes muscorum demonstrates one method: use the alga of another genus to get started, eventually latch onto your favored one, and never mind if your host dies. Should you ever have the opportunity to check out this action before the Cladonia entirely disappears, bear in mind that these lichens are very small, and bring along a hand lens. The author wishes to thank Dr. Shirley Tucker for reviewing this article.

Literature cited:

Friedl, T. 1987. Thallus development and phycobionts of the parasitic lichen Diploschistes muscorum. Lichenologist 19(2): 183-191.

Fig. 1. Cladonia podetium (on right) being squeezed and stressed by encroaching Diploschistes. Bar=5mm


Completed Workshop Series

January 10,1998 -- Eleven CALS members met at the University and Jepson Herbaria at the University of California, Berkeley to hear Mona Bourell of the California Academy of Sciences lecture on curating lichens: collection techniques, preparation of specimens, labelling, and storage, reminding us to freeze our dried specimens to guard against pest infestation. In the afternoon William Sanders spoke about the origin, methods and results of his studies on the growth patterns of Ramalina menziesii. Attending were Mona Bourell, Stephen Buckhout, Susan Crutchfield, Janet Doell, Bill Hill, Marck Mencke, Dick Moe, Judy Robertson, John Rusk, William Sanders, and Stella Yang.

February 21, 1998 -- Despite heavy rain Cathleen Cannon, Bill Hill, Judy Robertson, and Stella Yang met at San Francisco State University for a very productive workshop of discussion about the role of CALS in providing direction and advice for parks and lands management organizations. We also identified more crustose specimens from the December workshop material.

March 21, 1998 -- This workshop focused on Usnea. Doris Baltzo explained unique Usnea terminology and led us through the Usnea key published in the CALS 1997 winter Bulletin. The participants, Susan Crutchfield, Bill Hill, Judy Robertson, and Stella Yang, drew on Doris's expertise to identify their own Usnea specimens.

Field Trips

Report of Field Trip to Ashland, Oregon -- California Lichen Society members met with members of the Oregon Native Plant Society and representatives of the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management at Southern Oregon University for the Oregon field trips May 23 and 24, 1998. A wide variety of habitats and elevations was explored during the two days in the field, providing an extensive species list.

On Saturday May 24, the group explored Pilot Rock, a landmark monolith on the ridge between the Rogue River and Klamath River watersheds. Guided by Rogue River Forest Botanist Wayne Rolle, the group of 18 lichen enthusiasts began the walk at an elevation of about 5200 feet in an old growth conifer forest. A few patches of snow remained under the canopy. The trail rose gently to emerge in a steep opening with large lichen-covered rocks. Continuing on to an elevation of approximately 5600 feet, the group passed through other habitats, including juniper, meadow, oak and chaparral.

Steven Jessup of the Biology Department at SOU arranged for the group to meet Saturday evening at the University for a lab session to identify the day's finds.

On Sunday May 24, the group met again, this time to be guided by David Wagner, Botanical Consultant, to the Enchanted Forest Trail in the lowlands near the Applegate River. This area provided mixed hardwoods, meadow and chaparral with a few large conifers (and an abundance of poison oak). Wildflowers were in fine bloom at this lower elevation.

In order to obtain permission to collect in this area, the Society agreed to furnish the managing agency (Bureau of Land Management) with a list of species found. Participants should send identifications with collection information to:

Stella Yang,

1389 Heckman Way,

San Jose, CA 95129


Please include relevant notes such as substrate, habitat, exposure, relative abundance at the site, elevation, longitude and latitude if possible with the collection number. Lists of identified species will be published in a subsequent issue of the Bulletin.

Submitted by Veva Stansell

On April 8, 1998 Janet Doell led a lichen field trip in the Santa Cruz Mountains for the Santa Clara Chapter of the California Native Plant Society. The trip was instigated by CALS and CNPS members Stella Yang and Steve Buckhout. Twelve CNPS members enjoyed the sunny day in the woods and learned that lichens seen in their native habitat were more impressive than those studied in a herbarium.

Stanford University's Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve opened its gates to the public on May 17, 1998 in celebration of the 25th anniversity of the establishment of the preserve. Over 3,000 people took advantage of this opportunity to visit the preserve and become acquainted with the work being done there. The lichen exhibit was visited by a continuous stream of people of all ages for the whole seven hours of the event. CALS members Chris Andrews, Elizabeth Rush, Janet Doell (Jasper Ridge Docents) and Barbara Lachelt manned the table with help from other interested Jasper Ridge docents.

Reminder to those who travelled to Santa Cruz Island for the CALS Foray September 1997. Please send your lichen lists to Cherie Bratt. This information will be published in a future Bulletin.

Reference Collection

CALS now has a traveling reference collection compiled by Dr. Shirley Tucker. These boxed specimens are available to any CALS member for loan for a month. The lichen specimens included in the collection are:

Acarospora socialis, Alectoria sarmentosa, Arthonia pruinata, Arthonia radiata, Bryoria abbreviata, Caloplaca cerina, Caloplaca coralloides, Candelaria concolor, Candelariella rosulans, Chrysothrix candelaris, Cladina rangiferina, Cladonia chlorophaea, Cladonia furcata, Cliostomum griffithii, Cyphelium tigillare, Dimelaena radiata, Diploschistes scruposus, Diplotomma penichrum, Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Graphis scripta, Heterodermia leucomelos, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Hypogymnia imshaugii, Hypogymnia mollis, Lecanora caesiorubella subsp. merrillii, Lecanora confusa, Lecanora pacifica, Lecanora sierrae, Lecidea tessellata, Lecidella asema, Leprocaulon microscopicum, Leptochidium albociliatum, Leptogium corniculatum, Letharia columbiana, Letharia vulpina, Melanelia glabra, Melanelia subaurifera, Ochrolechia oregonensis, Opegrapha herbarum, Parmotrema chinense, Parmotrema hypoleucinum, Peltigera collina, Pertusaria amara, Pertusaria flavicunda, Pertusaria texana, Physcia clementei, Physcia stellaris, Physconia perisidiosa, Psora tuckermanii, Punctelia subrudecta, Pyrrhospora quernea, Ramalina farinacea, Ramalina leptocarpha, Ramalina menziesii, Sigridea californica, Teloschistes exilis, Thelomma mammosum, Tuckermannopsis platyphylla, Umbilicaria phaea, Usnea rubicunda, Usnea wirthii, Vermilacinia procera, Vulpicida canadensis, Xanthoparmelia cf. cumberlandia, Xanthoparmelia taractica, and Xanthoria polycarpa.

We are in the process of developing a card file to accompany the specimens highlighting the field identification characters of each lichen. We would like to add to this collection. If you can provide any of the specimens listed below or any others you feel would be good study material please send them to me with a collection label and a 3 X 5 card listing the distinctive characters. We will package the specimen and add it to our collection.

Desiderata: Cladonia macilenta, Cladonia verticillata, Collema spp., Dermatocarpon miniatum, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Kaernefeltia merrillii, Lecanora muralis, Leptogium spp., Lobaria pulmonaria, Niebla homalea, Normandina pulchella, Parmelia sulcata, Peltigera spp., Physcia adscendens, Physcia aipolia, Platismatia glauca, Pseudocyphellaria anomala, Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis, Psora nipponica, Sphaerophorus globosus, Sticta spp., Usnea arizonica, Vermilacinia cephalota, and Xanthoria candelaria.

Send to:

Judy Robertson

362 Scenic Avenue

Santa Rosa, CA. 95407


Workshops for Fall 1998

September 26, 1998 -- San Francisco State University, Hensill Hall, 10 am to 4 pm. Focus: Xanthoria. We will use Louise Lindblom's Xanthoria key (J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 83:75-172. 1997. Reviewed in Bull. Calif. Lichen Soc. 4: 28). Bring your Xanthoria specimens for identification.

October 24, 1998 -- San Francisco State University, Hensill Hall, 10 am to 4 pm. Focus: Microscopy. Mikki McGee will explain setting up a microscope, proper care of the microscope and proper techniques for making microscope preparations.

November 21, 1998 -- San Francisco State University, Hensill Hall, 10 am to 4 pm. Focus: Physcia, Physconia, Phaeophyscia. We will use published keys to distinguish and identify these genera and explain and demonstrate techniques for chemical testing. Bring your specimens for identification.

December 19, 1998 -- San Francisco State University, Hensill Hall, 10 am to 4 pm. Focus: Buellia and Ochrolechia. Using keys published in the CALS Bulletin and elsewhere we will use chemical tests and study sections of specimens with the microscope in order to identify specimens of these crustose genera. Bring your unknowns for identification.

In Memoriam

CALS member Jim Trumbull passed away last year after a brief illness. He was involved in an incredible number of environmental and educational organizations on the Peninsula, and his energy and enthusiasm will be missed by many. CALS was honored to have had him as a member.

Field trips

Desert Field Trip, October 9-12, 1998 -- CALS has planned a unique field trip for the weekend of October 9-12, 1998. We will be getting a look at desert lichens at the Sweeney Granite Mountains Desert Research Center, part of the University of California's reserve system. This is a beautiful part of the Eastern Mojave Desert, between Kelso and Amboy, and people living or working in the area all agree that early October is the very best time to go there.

The cost of housing at the Research Center is $4.50 a night. Camping is available for $2.00 a night. Food will be arranged by CALS and the cost will be kept within reason.

There will be lichens galore at areas requiring short drives and little or no walking, and opportunities for longer drives and longer hikes for those so inclined. A request for a collecting permit has been submitted and no problem is anticipated there.

The Granite Mountains are a good 9-10 hour drive from the Bay Area, much closer of course for our more southern members. Another alternative is to fly to Las Vegas and rent a car for the approximately two hour drive from there.

Please call, write, or e-mail Janet Doell if you are interested in this field trip and you will receive maps and program details as they develop. No need to make a commitment yet, but I would like some idea of possible attendance.

Dates again: Arrive Friday October 9 in the afternoon or evening. Collecting trips Saturday and Sunday. Depart Monday October 12 in the morning. Or any part of the above.

Janet Doell (510)236-0489

1200 Brickyard Way #302

Point Richmond, CA 94801 doell@slip.net

Field trips for 1999 are still in the planning stage.

San Francisco Watershed--We have a tentative date to revisit the Watershed January 23. Bill Freedman will lead us to a different area for a continuation of our lichen survey.

San Simeon State Park--We will have the opportunity to compile a complete lichen survey of this area. The date will be in April. Look for details in the Winter Bulletin.

Increase in Dues for Foreign Subscribers

Effective January, 1999, dues for foreign subscribers will be increased to $20.00 to cover postal costs.


My term as President started out with a very pleasant evening of friendship and delicious food. After the foray to the San Francisco Watershed on January 31, twelve CALS members returned to San Francisco State University where a variety of activities followed. Some of the group met in the laboratory and focused on identifying their collected specimens, the new and old boards held a board meeting, and others started preparation for dinner.

At the general meeting the new board was presented. We were then treated to a catered dinner in the unique atmosphere of the botany laboratory. Plants and greens decorated the room while caterers efficiently prepared and served a delicious meal. On behalf of the Society I presented Janet Doell with a plaque honoring her as our Founder. She was also presented with special bottles of wine from a Santa Barbara winery. Cherie Bratt made a presentation to Richard Doell for his support of the Society. The original members of CALS were recognized and we ended the celebration singing "Happy Birthday" to CALS complete with a CALS-decorated birthday cake.

After dinner, Dr. Philippe Cohen of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve spoke about the challenges and rewards of being a Biological Preserve Director. Previously he served as director of the Granite Mountains Preserve, the site of our coming October foray.

My goals for CALS are to build upon the excellent foundation of the past four years as we foster continued learning and growth for the Society and for the individual members. Some of the ways we can do this are through our bulletin, field trips, workshops, and our recently acquired travelling reference collection of specimens.

The Bulletin is an excellent resource. The editors and contributors are striving to meet the needs of the beginner and the advanced lichenologist. We welcome your contributions.

The workshops foster the community of mentors and learners as we gain expertise in the essential skills of identifying specimens, performing chemical testing, making slide preparations, and becoming familiar with library and herbarium research.

Field trips give us the opportunity to explore and map the lichen environment that surrounds us as well as meeting and sharing knowledge with other lichen enthusiasts.

I wholeheartedly invite you to participate in the area of your interest. If you have any suggestions about how we can fill your unique needs, I want to hear from you. Good luck in your lichen pursuits.

Judy Robertson