Keys to Juncus and Luzula of California

by Barbara Ertter

(prepared for and modified during Friends of the Jepson Herbarium Weekend Workshop on Juncaceae, July, 2000)

Some Character States:
Fls. 1 per node vs. in heads:
1 PER NODE: Infl is sometimes densely congested but with discernable internodes between each individually attached fl, with the lowermost fls usually distinctly separated. Corresponds to "prophyllate"
FLS IN HEADS: All fls are in tight clusters, with no discernible internodes within clusters. Corresponds to "eprophyllate".

Outcrossing vs. Selfing Morphology:
OUTCROSSING - anthers > filaments, style and stigmas long, often breaking off in fruit, fls always opening widely at full anthesis with styles well separated from anthers
SELFING - anthers gen < filaments, styles and stigmas short, gen not breaking off in fruit, fls often not opening widely even at full anthesis, the styles gen in close proximity to anthers

Stamen number: If only 3 stamens are present (2 in dimerous fls), they are opposite the outer tepals and missing from behind the inner tepals. The state "Stamens 3" can also be read as "Inner tepals lacking stamens". Most easily determined in living material at full anthesis, but also readily determined (with magnification) in fruiting material by folding back an inner tepal.

Seeds tailed: "Tailed" seeds are sheathed in a ± papery coat that extends beyond the body of the seed at both ends (somewhat like a taffy wrapper), with the tails often as long as the body

Abbreviations: Abbreviations following each species indicate geographic range in California as used in The Jepson Manual (ed. J.C. Hickman, 1993)



Juncus

1. Annuals, gen < 10 cm tall; lvs narrow, gen < 1 mm wide, flat or channeled, never septate; stamens absent behind inner tepals
2. Fls lateral in a branched inflorescence, 1 per node (sometimes densely congested but with discernible internodes), with selfing morphology; stamens gen 6; lvs mostly cauline [annual Poiophylli] . . .  J. bufonius L. (varietal treatment under subg. Poiophylli]
2' Fls terminal in an unbranched infl, solitary or in heads (lacking discernible internodes); stamens 3 (2 in dimerous fls); lvs all basal [annual Graminifolii]
1' Perennials, gen > 10 cm tall; fls always trimerous; other features various
3. Stems & lvs rigidly sharp-pointed, cylindrical; plants forming large dense tufts 0.4 - 1.5 m tall; infl appearing lateral (infl bract stem-like), openly branched with small, few-fld clusters; ± saline or alkaline sites at low elevations in southern CA and beyond [subg. Thalassici (= sect. Juncus sensu Kirschner et al.*)]
4. At least inner tepals ± rounded, broadly margined, 2 - 4 mm long; plants to 1.5 m tall; coastal areas and Sonora Desert, also in S.Am. and s Afr . . .  J. acutus L. subsp. leopoldii (Parl.) Snog. [CCo SCo s ChI DSon]
4' Tepals acute to acuminate, narrowly margined, 4 - 6 mm long; plants 0.4 - 0.8 m tall; interior deserts of CA and NV . . .  J. cooperi Engelm. [D]
3' Stems & lvs ± flexible, not rigidly sharp-pointed (at least when fresh); other features variable (but if infl appearing lateral then fls 1 per node, though sometimes densely congested)
5. Fls 1 per node (see introductory explanation of character states); lvs never septate
6. Fls gen 1 - 3 per culm, with outcrossing morphology; stamens 6; seeds tailed; plants forming dense tufts 0.5 - 3(4) dm tall; high elevations subg. Genuini p.p.
7. All lvs reduced to basal sheaths (exc for small bristle); capsule blunt; ± moist areas . . .  J. drummondii E. Meyer [KR CaR SN]
7' Upper (inner) lvs with distinct blades; capsule acute; ± dry exposed rocky areas . . .  J. parryi Engelm. [KR SN SnBr W&I]
6' Fls gen more numerous; seeds not tailed; other characters various; mostly low to mid elevations
8. Infl bract stem-like, cylindrical, the infl accordingly appearing to be lateral; lvs most often reduced to basal sheaths subg. Genuini p.p.
8' Infl bract leaf-like, the infl more evidently terminal; lf-blades always present, narrowly grasslike; fls with selfing morphology; stamens 6 [perennial subg. Poiophylli]
5' Fls in heads; infl bract leaf-like
9. Lf-blades iris-like, flattened perpendicular to stem, with partial septa subg. Ensifolii
9' Lf-blades not iris-like, either grass-like or cylindrical with complete septa
10. Lf-blades grass-like, lacking septa [perennial subg. Graminifolii]
10' Lf-blades gen ± cylindrical, partitioned by regularly spaced septa [subg. Septati]

subg. Genuini [= sect. Juncotypus*]

[see Lint's unpublished mss.** for an alternate treatment of this subgenus]

1. Fls gen 1 - 3, with outcrossing morphology; stamens 6; seeds tailed; plants forming dense tufts 0.5 - 3(4) dm tall; high elevations

2. All lvs reduced to basal sheaths (exc for small bristle); capsule blunt; ± moist areas . . .  J. drummondii E. Meyer [KR CaR SN]
2' Upper (inner) lvs with distinct blades; capsule acute; ± dry exposed rocky areas . . .  J. parryi Engelm. [KR SN SnBr W&I]
1' Fls gen more numerous; seeds not tailed; other characters various; mostly low to mid elevations
3. Plants forming dense tufts; flowers with selfing morphology; tepals 1.8 - 4.2 mm long
4. Stamens 6; culms gen ± gray-green, finely grooved; wet to moderately dry sites, coast and coastal ranges of CA and OR . . .  J. patens E. Meyer [KR NCoR CW SCoR SCo ChI WTR; OR]
4' Stamens 3 (lacking behind inner tepals); culms bright green; wet sites; widespread . . .  J. effusus L. [CA exc D] [infraspecific variation problematic; see Lint mss.]
3' Plants openly rhizomatous, forming open or dense stands; flowers with out-crossing morphology; tepals 3.5 - 8 mm long; stamens 6 [cylindrical vs. twisted/flattened culm of questionable value, at least in CA]
5. Tepals (5)6 - 8 mm long, with green midrib and brown margins; coastal dune marshes in central and n CA, S. Am . . .  J. lesueurii Bolander (possibly should be J. lescurii, if intended to honor Lesquereux instead of Lesueur)
6. Infl open to ± congested, gen positioned near top of "stem" (i.e., infl. bract < 1/4 culm); culms more erect and slender than var. tracyi; marsh edges . . .  var. lesueurii [NCo CCo]
6' Infl gen ± congested, gen positioned ca. midlength on "stem" (i.e., infl bract > 1/4 culm); culms more lax and thicker than var. lesueurii; dunes . . .  var. tracyi Jepson (= J. breweri Engelm.) [NCo CCo]
5' Tepals 3 - 6 mm long, not notably bicolored; various habitats
7. Plants 1 - 2 m tall; culm 3 - 10 mm thick at base, finely ridged with peripheral bundles of strengthening cells; capsules obtuse; sw CA below 1800 m . . .  J. textilis Buchenau [s SCoRO n&c SW]
7' Plants gen < 1 m tall; culms gen < 5 mm thick at base, lacking peripheral bundles of strengthening cells; capsules acute; (J. balticus Willd. s.l. or J. arcticus Willd.)
8. Lf-blades gen absent; widespread . . .  J. balticus Willd. (= J. arcticus var. balticus (Willd.) Trautvetter) [CA]
8' Lf-blades gen present on at least some lvs; southern CA and beyond . . .  J. mexicanus Willd. (= J. arcticus var. mexicanus (Willd.) Balslev) [CA exc GV] [NOTE: questionably distinguishable at least in CA; gen smaller than balticus s.s. and in somewhat drier situation]

subg. Poiophylli

1. Annuals, gen < 2 dm tall; lvs mostly cauline . . .  J. bufonius L. s.l.; = sect. Tenageia sensu Kirschner et al.* [NOTE: current World Monograph of Juncaceae manuscript treats American material as respresenting several Eurasian species: J. bufonius s.s. (with var. congestus in synonymy), J. ranarius ssp. ranarius (syn: J. bufonius var. halophilus), J. amuricus var. amuricus (syn: J. bufonius var. occidentalis), and J. sorrentinii (syn: J. congdonii)]
2. Inner tepals ± rounded, << outer tepals; uncommon . . .  var. halophilus Buchenau & Fern. (= J. ambiguus Guss.) [NCo CCo] [NOTE: of dubious signficance in CA]
2' Inner tepals acute, < or = outer tepals
3. Tepals < 4 mm long . . .  var. occidentalis F.J. Herm. [incl. refs. to J. sphaerocarpus Nees, misapplied] [CA?]
3' Tepals 4 - 7 mm long
4. Infl open; widespread and common . . .  var. bufonius [CA]
4' Infl congested; gen ± saline areas . . .  var. congestus Wahlenb. [incl. var. congdonii] [c GV CW]
1' Tufted perennials, gen > 1 dm tall; lvs mostly basal [sect. Steirochloa sensu Kirschner et al.*]
5. Auricles ± hardened and yellowish (i.e., toenail-like), gen < 0.5 mm long; fls relatively few, ± congested; tepals 4 - 5 mm long . . .  J. dudleyi Wieg. [rare? in n CA, widespread east of CA]
5' Auricles membranous
6. Capsules 3-chambered; auricles < 2 mm long; n CA above 900 m
7. Tepals 4 - 5.5 mm long; fls relatively many in an open infl . . .  J. brachyphyllus Wieg. [MP & beyond]
7' Tepals 3.5 - 4 mm long; fls few, congested . . .  J. confusus Cov. [KR NCoRI CaRH n&c SNH; n to Canada]
6' Capsules 1- or incompletely 3-chambered; auricles to 6 mm long (can be much shorter); tepals 3 - 5 mm long; fls relatively numerous
8. Auricles < 0.5 mm long; tepals 3 - 4 mm long; pl gen > 5 dm tall . . . J. interior Wieg. [possibly entering CA from east, or perhaps all reports based on J. tenuis]
8' Auricles > 0.5 mm long; tepals 3.5 - 5 mm long; pl gen < 5 dm tall
9. Infl open, all fls distinct; auricles 1 - 6 mm long; worldwide but relatively uncommon in CA, gen < 1500 m in west-central & nw CA . . .  J. tenuis Willd. [range unclear]
9' At least some fls congested; auricles 0.5 - 1.5 mm long; west-central CA and central Sierra Nevada north; also OR, NV, AZ . . .  J. occidentalis (Cov.) Wieg. [range unclear; at least NCo CCo n&c SN]

subg. Graminifolii

1. Tufted annuals, < 1 dm tall; infl unbranched, each culm ending in solitary fl or head; stamens 3 (2 in dimerous fls); lvs narrow, gen < 1 mm wide; stamens 3 [= sect. Caespitosi sensu Kirschner et al.*]
2. Infl bracts leaflike, >> fls; outer tepals acute, twice the length of obtuse inner tepals; lowlands . . .  J. capitatus Weigel [CaRF n SNF GV; native to Mediterranean]
2' Infl bracts membranous, << fls; inner & outer tepals similar in size and shape
3. Fls with outcrossing morphology, gen trimerous, the styles and anthers gen > 1 mm long; plants to 13(17) cm tall
4. Seeds with distinct longitudinal ridges; culms < 0.5 mm thick; esp. on seepage over granitic rocks in mountains . . .  J. triformis Engelm. [SN PR]
4' Seeds with longitudinal and horizontal ridges equally faint; culms to 0.8 mm thick; vernal pools and swales in northern and central Great Valley and adjacent foothills . . .  J. leiospermus F.J. Herm.
5. Fls gen in heads; northern Sacramento Valley and adjacent Cascade & Sierran foothills . . .  var. leiospermus [n ScV CaRF SNF]
5' Fls gen solitary; central Great Valley and adjacent Sierran foothills . . .  var. ahartii Ertter [c GV n&c SNF]
3' Fls with selfing morphology, the styles and anthers gen < 0.5 mm long; plants rarely to 6.5 cm tall
6. Seeds with distinct longitudinal ridges, 0.3 to 0.8 mm long (ridges faint in J. capillaris, with seeds > 0.5 mm long); fls often > 1 per culm (exc. J. luciensis); infl bracts acute to acuminate; most often on granite-based substrates (e.g., seepage on rocks, swales on sandstone)
7. Capsules tending to be ± globose, pale green with darker apex, often << and contrasting with black-tipped tepals; seeds often only faintly ridged, 0.5 - 0.8 mm long, 9 or fewer (6 or fewer in dimerous fls) . . .  J. capillaris F.J. Herm. [mid to high elev SN; Steens Mt, OR] [often occurring with and possibly intergrading with J. tiehmii]
7' Capsules tending to be ellipsoid, uniformly colored, gen ± equalling or exceeding the similarly colored tepals; seeds distinctly ridged, < 0.5 mm long, often > 9 (or > 6 in dimerous fls)
8. Fls gen dimerous, 1 - few, aging pinkish; capsules gen > tepals . . .  J. tiehmii Ertter [mid to high elev SN SCoR TR PR; scattered in n NV, sw ID, e OR e WA & n Baja CA]
8' Fls gen trimerous; capules ± equalling tepals; low to mid elevations
9. Fls most often > 1 on well-developed culms, gen aging dark reddish . . . J. kelloggii Engelm. [NW CaRF ScV CW; sparsely north to s tip of Vancouver Island, Canada] [NOTE: type collection from San Francisco is unique in being nearly stemless; never found in San Franciso since and possibly representing an extinct variety]
9' Fls rarely > 1 even on well-developed culms, gen remaining green until seeds ripen; . . .  J. luciensis Ertter [primarily SCoR (where often in mixed populations with J. kelloggii) with scattered occurrences in NCoR n SNH TR PR MP]
6' Seeds with longitudinal and horizontal ridges equally faint, always < 0.6 mm long; fls never > 1 per culm; infl bracts acute to truncate or lacking
10. Tepals curving inward to enwrap the shorter capsule, gen < 2.3 mm long, cherry reddish; fls gen trimerous; culms slender, 0.1 - 0.2 mm thick, 0.3 - 2(2.5) cm long; gen ± sandy substrates at mid to high elevations, widespread . . .  J. bryoides F.J. Herm. [SNH SCoRO TR PR W&I MP; ID and CO to Baja CA]
10' Tepals remaining erect to recurved, < or = capsule, often > 2.3 mm long; culms stouter, often > 0.2 mm thick, to 3 cm long; gen ± clay soils
11. Fls gen trimerous; capsules remaining green or aging maroon; infl bract solitary, truncate, sheathing culm; acidic vernal pools at low elevations . . . J. uncialis Greene [primarily in GV; sporadic in NCoRI SCoRO SCo MP; to n OR]
11' Fls gen dimerous; capsules aging orange-red; widespread at moderate to high elevations . . .  J. hemiendytus F.J. Herm.
12. Infl. bracts 1 or 2, rounded to ovate; culm not expanded above, abruptly distinct from fl . . .  J. hemiendytus F.J. Herm. var. hemiendytus [KR NCoR CaRH SNH SnBR GB; north to s WA and central ID]
12' Infl bract lacking; culm expanded above and merging with fl (sometimes growing in mixed populations with var. hemiendytus, when different capsule color is also discernible) . . .  J. hemiendytus F.J. Herm. var. abjectus (F.J. Herm.) Ertter [SNH MP; OR, ID & NV]
1' Perennials, gen > 1 dm tall; infl often branched, fls always in heads; lvs gen > 1 mm wide; other features variable [= sect. Graminei sensu Kirschner et al.*]
13. Lvs mostly cauline; fls with selfing morphology, in numerous few-fld heads; rare, northern Sierra Nevada in CA
14. Rhizomes well-developed, grading into stem; stamens 6; anthers red . . . J. cyperoides Laharpe [n SNH, local in Butte Co.; native to S.Am.]
14' Rhizomes scarcely developed, distinct from stem; stamens 3; anthers yellow . . .  J. marginatus Rostkov var. marginatus [n SNF; disjunct from e NAm]
13' Lvs mostly basally clustered; fls with outcrossing morphology; stamens 6
15. Tepals uniformly pale, not roughened, 3 - 6 mm long, the inner > the outer; plants densely caespitose, 2 - 10 dm tall . . .  J. macrophyllus Cov. [SCoRO TR DMtns]
15' Tepals with ± green midrib and brown margins, gen minutely papillate; plants loosely tufted to openly rhizomatous; coastal and montane central and northern CA
16. Well-developed plants gen < 2.5 dm tall; lvs > 1/2 of culm length, auricles gen lacking or indistinct
17. Tepals 4.5 - 6 mm long; lvs often ± curved; coastal . . .  J. falcatus E. Meyer var. falcatus [NCo CCo SCo; Japan, Australia, & some Pacific Islands] [var. sitchensis Buchenau, fls with selfing morphology, approaches from the north]
17' Tepals 2 - 4 mm long; lvs straight; inland, esp. montane . . .  J. covillei Piper [NW CaR SN SCoR SnGb SnBr; to B.C., ID] [NOTE: vars. of dubious significance in CA]
18. Tepals gen dark brown, the inner ones rounded; capsule gen ± 1 mm longer than tepals; low elevations . . .  var. covillei
18' Tepals gen pale brown, the inner ones obtuse-acute; capsule ± equalling tepals; mid to high elevations . . .  var. obtusatus (Engelm.) C. Hitchc.
16' Well-developed plants gen 3+ dm tall; lvs often < 1/2 culm length
19. Auricles distinct, rounded; lvs < 5 mm wide
20. Seeds not tailed; membranous margins of tepals as wide as midrib (= heads relatively pale); lvs 1 - 3 mm wide . . .  J. longistylis Torrey [SNH TR PR Wrn W&I; to B.C. & e NAm]
20' Seeds tailed; membranous margins of tepals narrow (= heads relatively dark); lvs 2 - 4.5 mm wide . . .  J. howellii F.J. Herm. [CaRH n SNH; to OR, ID]
19' Auricles lacking or indistinct and pointed
21. Tepals 2 - 4 mm long; plants to 3 dm tall; lvs 2 - 4 mm wide; seeds not tailed . . . J. covillei Piper [see couplet 48 for discussion of vars.]
21' Tepals 4 - 6 mm long; plants 2 - 6 dm tall
22. Lvs 1 - 3 mm wide; seeds tailed; rare . . .  J. regelii Buchenau [KR; to B.C., WY. UT]
22' Lvs 2 - 6 mm wide; seeds not tailed; widespread in mts . . .  J. orthophyllus Cov. [NCoRH CaRH SNH TR DMtns; to WA, ID, NV]

subg. Septati [= sect. Ozophyllum*]

1. Plants of mid to high elevations (1200 - 3500 m) in the Transverse Ranges, White Mts (but not other desert mts), Sierra Nevada and mts of northern CA and beyond; stamens 6
2. Fls with definite outcrossing morphology (anthers << filaments, stigmas prominently displayed at anthesis); culms to 5 dm tall
3. Tepals pale greenish pink to white, ± 4 mm long; heads 1 - few, gen many-fld; auricles 4 - 6 mm long . . .  J. chlorocephalus Engelm. [n & c SN]
3' Tepals dark brown, 3 - 3.5 mm long; heads 1 - many, relatively few-fld (< 10); auricles 2 - 3 mm long; widespread and abundant . . .  J. nevadensis S. Watson [KR NCoRH NCoRI CaRH SNH SnGb SnBr GB; widespread elsewhere in w NAm]
2' Fls with intermediate morphology (anthers = filaments, stigmas moderately exserted at anthesis); head gen 1 per culm, gen many-fld
4. Lower infl bract not sheathing; tepals brown, relatively stiff, ± 3 mm long; culms < 2 dm tall; endemic to s CA mts . . .  J. duranii Ewan [SnGb SnBr SnJt]
4' Lower infl bract short, sheathing; tepals purplish black, flexible, 3 - 4 mm long; culms to 4.5 dm tall; widespread . . .  J. mertensianus Bong. [KR NCoRI CaRH SNH Wrn W&I; widespread elsewhere in w NAm, to AK]
1. Plants of low elevations (0 - 1800 m) throughout CA, often along rivers; fls gen with ± selfing morphology [some possible exceptions; not fully analyzed]; other features variable
5. Heads 1 - 1.5 cm broad, gen > 20-fld, subglobose, often congested; pl ± openly rhizomatous
6. Stamens 3; capsule oblong; tepals dark to light brown, 3 - 3.5 mm long, subequal; northern coast and coastal mountains . . .  J. bolanderi Engelm. [NW CCo; to B.C.]
6' Stamens 6; capsule tapered; tepals light brown, 3.5-5.6 mm long, the outer longer than inner, rigidly pointed; sporadic in transmontane and southern CA . . .  J. torreyi Cov. [SW GB D; widespread elsewhere in NAm]
5' Heads < 1 cm broad, relatively few-fld, infl gen ± diffuse; tepals < 4 mm long, not rigidly pointed
7. Heads very numerous (25 - 150), 4 - 10-fld (-25-fld in acuminatus); infl branches ± widely divergent; tepals 2.5 - 3.5 mm long, brownish or reddish
8. Stamens 3; lf and culm surfaces not wrinkled
9. Capsule ± equalling tepals . . .  J. acuminatus Michaux [sporadic in NCo KR CaRF GV SnFrB, gen < 500 m; common in e NAm]
9' Capsule twice as long as tepals . . .  J. diffusissimus Buckley [ScV; native to e NAm]
8' Stamens 6; capsule ± equalling tepals
10. Lf and culm surfaces finely wrinkled transversely . . .  J. rugulosus Engelm. [s SNF CCo TR PR DMtns]
10' Lf and culm surfaces not wrinkled . . .  J. dubius Engelm. [sporadic in CaRF &s SNF SnFrB SCoRO PR DMoj; OR] [NOTE: treated as unnamed variant of J. rugulosus in FNA]
7' Heads few to moderately numerous (< 25)
11. Culms creeping to ascending, rooting at nodes; heads 3 - 12-fld
12. Tepals ± 4 mm long, light brown; stamens gen 3; culms threadlike, gen creeping or floating, to 4 dm; early lvs often submersed, filiform; heads < 10; rare on northern coast . . . J. supiniformis Engelm. [n&c NCo; to AK]
12' Tepals 2 - 3 mm long, dark brown; stamens 6; culms not threadlike, decumbent to erect, 2 - 10 dm tall; lvs not submersed or filiform . . .  J. articulatus L. [GV and sporadic in c SN NW SnFrB; widespread elsewhere in NAm]
11' Culms erect, not rooting at nodes; heads 5 - 20-fld; tepals 2.5 - 4 mm long, light brown
13. Stamens 3; plants ± caespitose; sporadic in cismontane CA < 500 m . . .  J. acuminatus Michaux [sporadic in NCo KR CaRF GV SnFrB, gen < 500 m; common in e NAm] [NOTE: J.tweedyi/brevicaudatus,with tailed seeds, tepals 3.5 - 4 mm long, and culms < 4 dm may approach from the north]
13' Stamens 6; plants openly rhizomatous; transmontane in CA, to 1700 m . . .  J. nodosus L. [se SNH n DMtns]

subg. Ensifolii [= sect. Iridifolii*]

[NOTE: this subgenus in great need of taxonomic revision and probably contains several currently unrecognized taxa. Differences between georgraphic ranges given here and in the Jepson Manual reflect both the high rate of misidentifications and complex nomenclatural history ; e.g., the inclusion of other species within J. xiphioides s.l.]

1. Fls with selfing morphology

2. Lf-blades 3 - 12 mm wide, lacking auricles; infl gen of many few-fld clusters; tepals 3 - 3.5 mm long, green to brown; stamens gen 6; low to mid elevations in cismontane & southern CA . . .  J. xiphioides E. Meyer [NW SN (F & lower H) GV CW SW SNE (rare) DMtns; north near coast to B.C., also AZ & Baja CA]
2' Lf-blades 2 - 5 mm wide; infl variable; tepals most often relatively dark; mostly at mid to high elevations in montane and interior w N.Am.
3. Stamens gen 3; tepals ± 3 mm long, dark brown to black; auricles obscure; various elevations . . .  J. ensifolius Wikström [NW CaR SN CCo SnBr W&I; widespread elsewhere in w NAm, to AK]
3' Stamens gen 6; tepals 2.5 - 3 mm long, pale to dark brown; auricles inconspicous but discernible; mid to high elevations . . .  J. saximontanus Nelson [KR CaRH SNH SnGb SnBr W&I; widespread elsewhere in w NAm] [Plants with numerous few-fld heads and pale brown tepals = brunnescens]
1' Fls with outcrossing morphology; stamens 6
4. Infl of very numerous (>25) few-fld heads; tepals light brown to green, ± 4 mm long, < tapered capsule; lf-blades 3 - 7 mm wide; gen low to mid elevations . . .  J. oxymeris Engelm. [NCoRI CaRF SN (F & lower H) GV SCo SnBr PR MP]
4' Infl of few to moderately numerous (< 25) heads; tepals gen dark brown or red, > or = capsule; lf-blades 2 - 4 mm wide
5. Tepals 3 - 4 mm long; heads moderately numerous (to very numerous in PR), each with ± 5 - 10 fls; capsule obtuse to tapered; forming ± open stands [?needs checking]; mid to high elevations in Sierra Nevada and southern CA . . .  J. macrandrus Cov. [SNH TR PR] [intergrading with oxymeris in lower SN, with oxymeris and phaeocephalus in SW]
5' Tepals gen 4 - 5 mm long; heads few to moderately numerous, each with > gen 10 fls; capsule tapered; forming solid stands; low to mid elevations in western & southern CA . . .  J. phaeocephalus Engelm.
6. Fls in few (gen < 5) heads 10 - 15 mm wide; coastal marshes . . .  var. phaeocephalus [NCo CCo SCo n ChI]
6' Fls in moderately numerous (gen 5 - 25) heads 5 - 10 mm wide; gen more interior than var. phaeocephalus . . .  var. paniculatus Engelm. [NCo NCoR CCo SnFrB SCo PR]
*sections sensu J. Kirschner, L. J. Novara, V.S. Novikov, S. Nogerup & Z. Kaplan, 1999. Supraspecific division of the genus Juncus (Juncaceae). Folia Geobotanica 34: 377 - 390.

**Lint, Harold L. 1977. A revision of Juncus subgenus Genuini (Juncaceae) in the Pacific States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University. 188 pp. [copy at UC/JEPS]

Luzula

1. Fls 1( - 3) at the ends of infl branches
2. Infl branches stiffly and widely spreading at ± right angles; lf-sheath opening glabrous; tepals distinctly acuminate, 1.8 - 2.4 mm long, reddish-brown; anthers 0.6 - 0.9 mm long, ± equalling filaments; n Sierra Nevada to OR . . .  L. divaricata S. Watson [CaRH SNH; OR, NV]
2' Infl branches arching to ± spreading but not stiffly at right angles; lf-sheath opening sparsely long-hairy; tepals obtuse to shortly acuminate
3. Tepals 2.5 - 3.5 mm long, dark brown; anthers 0.8 - 1.5 mm long, > filaments . . .  L. hitchcockii Hamet-Ahti (= w NAm refs to L. glabrata) [reported but not documented from CA; approaching from s OR]
3' Tepals gen < 2.5 mm long; anthers < 0.8 mm long, gen < or = filaments
4. Tepals green to brown; infl bractlets ± shallowly toothed; culms 2 - 10 dm tall with 3 - 5 cauline lvs ± 3 - 10 mm broad; seeds ± brown; nw CA and Sierra Nevada and beyond . . . L. parviflora (Ehrn.) Desv. [NW (exc NCoRI) SN; circumboreal]
4' Tepals dark purple-brown; infl bractlets gen deeply and irregularly toothed (lacerate fimbriate); culms 1 - 3.5 dm tall with 2 - 3 cauline lvs ± 2 - 5 mm broad; seeds light yellow-brown . . .  L. piperi (Cov.) M.E. Jones [KR; disjunct from Pacific NW, to e Asia]
1' Fls congested in 1 - several clusters
5. Infl ± open with branches ending in fl clusters; lvs flat, 3 - 7 mm wide
6. Infl branches straight; tepals 2 - 5 mm long, green to pale brownish; 50 - 3200 m, widespread . . .  L. comosa E. Meyer [NW CaRH SN (exc Teh) CCo SnFrB ChI SnGb SnBr SnJt MP; widespread elsewhere in w NAm, to AK]
6' Infl branches ± flexuous, arching; tepals 1.5 - 2 mm long, pale to dark brown; > 2000 m in Sierra Nevada and mts of n CA . . .  L. subcongesta (S. Watson) Jepson [KR CaRH SNH]
5' Infl ± headlike or spikelike; tepals 2 - 3 mm long
7. Lvs channeled, not flat, 1 - 4 mm wide; infl arching, ± spikelike; tepals brown to pale with clear margins, bristle-pointed . . .  L. spicata (L.) DC. [SNH Wrn; circumboreal]
7' Lvs flat, 2.5 - 7 mm wide; infl erect, ± headlike
8. Tepals very dark with clear margins; endemic to Sierra Nevada > 2700 m . . .  L. orestera Sharsm. [SNH]
8' Tepals green to pale brownish; 50 - 3200 m, widespread . . .  L. comosa E. Meyer [NW CaRH SN (exc Teh) CCo SnFrB ChI SnGb SnBr SnJt MP; widespread elsewhere in w NAm, to AK]

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