University Herbarium, UC Berkeley


Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot

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drawing of Codium fragile
Codium mucronatum J. Agardh, C. mucronatum f. californicum J. Agardh
Gametophyte: Abbott and Hollenberg 1976, p. 117, fig. 77 (habit); Borden and Stein 1969, p. 94, figs. 2–7 (development of anisogametes), p. 95, figs. 8–11, 14, 15 (development of germlings), fig. 12 (male gametes); Borden and Stein 1970, pp. 152, 153, figs. 1–21 (photos: mitosis); Cameron 1912, pl. XVIII, fig. 2 (photo: habit); Scagel 1966, pl. 2, fig. G (habit), fig. H (utricle with gametangia), fig. I (utricle with hair), figs. J–L (development of hair), fig. M (apex of utricle); Scagel 1967, p. 69, fig. 22:a (habit), b (utricles with gametangia); Silva 1979, p. 343, fig. 15 (photo: habit); Smith 1930, p. 229, fig. 3A (diagram, x-section of thallus), fig. 3B (utricle with male gametangia), fig. 3C (female gamete), fig. 3D (male gametes), fig. 3E–K (fusion of gametes), fig. 3L–P (germling development); Waaland 1977, pl. 4 (color photo: habit) Display references
Pacific Coast Distribution:
Sitka, Alaska (J. Agardh 1887, p. 44) to Monterey Peninsula, Calif. (Smith 1944, p. 75); Monterey Co., Calif. (Kasler Pt., Pt. Sur: Silva 1951, p. 97); San Luis Obispo Co., Calif. (Montaña de Oro State Park, Shell Beach: Sparling 1977, p. 27); Santa Barbara, Calif. (Silva 1951, p. 97); Pitas Pt., Ventura Co., Calif. (Dawson 1959b, p. 186); Channel Is., Calif. (San Miguel I., Santa Rosa I., Santa Cruz I., San Nicolas I., Santa Barbara I., Santa Catalina I., San Clemente I.: Silva 1951, p. 97; Anacapa I.: Murray and Littler 1989, p. 66); Los Angeles Co., Calif. (Redondo Beach: Silva 1951, p. 97; Whites Point: Dawson 1959b, pp. 186, 188, 191); Orange Co., Calif. (Corona del Mar: Silva 1951, p. 97; Crystal Cove and Dana Pt.: Nicholson and Cimberg 1971, p. 371); La Jolla, San Diego Co., Calif. (Dawson 1945c, p. 19); Baja Calif. (Playas de Tijuana: L. Aguilar Rosas et al. 1982, p. 61; to Bahía Asunción: Dawson 1951b, p. 52; Islas Los Coronados, Islas Todos Santos: Silva 1951, p. 97; Islas San Benito: Dawson 1949b, p. 229; Isla Guadalupe: Setchell and Gardner 1930, p. 129) Display references
Silva 1951, p. 96 Display references
Life History:
diploid unisexual or bisexual macroscopic thallus arising from perennating fibrous base; sexual reproduction anisogamous, zygote developing into pancake-like stage from which gametophyte eventually arises (Borden and Stein 1969; Smith 1930, p. 228); parthenogenesis possible and probably widespread Display references
reportedly reproductive in summer on the Monterey Peninsula (Smith 1930, p. 228), and in winter/spring at La Jolla, San Diego Co., Calif. (Gunnill 1980a), but in fact occurring throughout the year Display references
Sloan and Bartier 2000, p. 14; Trowbridge 1993b, Trowbridge 1992b; Wheeler and Björnsäter 1992; Fawley 1991, p. 545; R. Aguilar Rosas and Machado Galindo 1990, p. 188; Lüning 1990; Foster et al. 1988, p. 11; Gunnill 1985, p. 150; Lewis 1982; Littler and Arnold 1982, p. 309; Seapy and Littler 1982; Stewart 1982, p. 53; Arnold and Murray 1980; Gunnill 1980a; Mumford 1980, p. 16; Thom 1980b, p. 105; Devinny 1978, p. 358; Littler and Murray 1978, p. 588; Littler and Murray 1975, p. 282; Littler and Murray 1974b, p. 132; Murray and Littler 1974, p. 72; Borden and Stein 1969; Paine and Vadas 1969a, p. 80; Paine and Vadas 1969b, p. 712; Neushul 1965, p. 168; Widdowson 1965b, p. 1427; Stephenson and Stephenson 1961a, p. 18; Silva 1951, p. 97; Rigg and Miller 1949 Display references
Antithamnion densum, Callithamnion acutum, Callithamnion pikeanum, Ceramium californicum, Ceramium codicola, Ceramium gardneri, Ceramium zacae, Erythrocladia irregularis, Erythrotrichia carnea, Feldmannia simplex, Microcladia borealis, Microcladia coulteri, Polysiphonia hendryi, Polysiphonia pacifica, Porphyrostromium boryanum, Pterothamnion pectinatum , Sphacelaria rigidula
Acrochaetium rhizoideum
Lüning 1990; Wheeler 1982, p. 127; Kremer 1979, p. 245 Display references
Vershinin and Kamnev 1996; Noda et al. 1990, p. 578; Jesus et al. 1989, p. 768; Sanders 1979, p. 97 Display references
Molecular Genetics:
Satoh et al. 1997.

Repr x      xxxxxxx   Abundant, in larger pools of the mid and low intertidal and subtidal, in fully sheltered to fully exposed habitats. Scagel 1957, p. 64. Scagel 1966, p. 118. Hawkes et al. 1979, p. 89. Display references
Ster xxxxxxxxxxxx
Repr                         Common, on rocks in pools of the low intertidal, often frayed, forming hemispherical clumps. Doty 1947, p. 30. Markham and Celestino 1977, p. 257. Display references
Ster    xxxxxx        
Repr                         Uncommon, on rocks in pools of the mid and low intertidal. Dawson 1965a, p. 11. Kjeldsen 1995, p. 5. Display references
Ster      xxxx      x  
Repr      x                 Common, on rocks in pools throughout the intertidal and into the subtidal. Dawson 1965a, p. 11. Kjeldsen 1995, p. 5. Display references
Ster  xxxxxxxxxx  
Repr                         Abundant, on rocks in pools of the low intertidal in exposed habitats. Johansen 1966a, p. 92. Kjeldsen 1995, p. 5. Display references
Ster xxxxxxxxxxxx
Repr                         Abundant, on rock or shells in pools of the mid and low intertidal, and upper subtidal on the tops and sides of rocks. Smith 1944, p. 75. Silva 1979, p. 345. Display references
Ster    xxxxxxxxxx

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Page dated: Mon Feb 13 21:24:48 2006
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