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Leathesia difformis (Linnaeus) Areschoug

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drawing of Leathesia difformis
plurilocular and unilocular organs after Setchell and Gardner 1925
Synonyms:
Leathesia nana Setchell et Gardner, L. amplissima Setchell et Gardner
Illustrations:
Abbott and Hollenberg 1976, p. 176, fig. 142, (habit), fig.143 (habit and x-section: unilocular sporangia); Dammann 1930, fig. 3 (presumed gametophyte of European plant); Scagel 1967, p. 87, fig. 29 (habit and x-section, sporophyte); Setchell and Gardner 1925, pl. 40, fig. 52 (x-section, sporophyte with plurilocular organs), pl. 43, fig. 64 (x-section, sporophyte with unilocular organs), figs. 65, 66 (x-section, sporophytes with plurilocular and unilocular organs respectively), fig. 67 (x-section, sporophyte with plurilocular organs) Display references
Pacific Coast Distribution:
Bering Sea (Setchell and Gardner 1925, p. 512) to Monterey Peninsula, California (Smith 1944, p. 115); San Luis Obispo Co., California (San Simeon; Cayucos: Sparling 1971, p. 236; Islay Creek: Silva in UC); Santa Barbara Co., California (Goleta: Silva in UC; Carpenteria: Dawson 1958, p. 65); Channel Is., California (Santa Rosa I., Anacapa I., and San Clemente I.: Silva in UC; Santa Cruz I.: Apt et al. 1988, p. 42; Santa Catalina I.: Dawson 1954a, p. 325); Dana Point, Orange Co., California (Dawson 1959b, p. 186) to Bahia Asuncion, Baja Calif. (Dawson 1953b, p. 115) Display references
Taxonomy:
Webber 1981; Novaczek 1987: (both articles suggest that L. nana is a synonym of L. difformis) Display references
Molecular Taxonomy:
Tan and Druehl 1994; Bhattacharya, Stickel et al. 1991 Display references
Life History:
plants from Sweden and France bore unilocular organs exclusively when they were young (small), and plurilocular organs exclusively when they were old (large). Isolates started with zooids from plurilocular organs grew into branched filamentous creeping systems. No copulation was observed. The creeping systems took two paths: 1) they formed assimilatory filaments and thus small cushions with plurilocular organs, thought to represent small Leathesias, 2) they formed uniseriate plurilocular organs directly on the creeping system. Sauvageau (1925) equated the creeping system with Myrionema, and took it through 6 generations of plurilocular plants. (Kylin 1933; Sauvageau 1925) Display references
Phenology:
spring, summer, fall annuals, appearing and reproducing sooner in the south than north
Biology/Ecology:
Oates 1989; Stewart 1989, p. 440; Lüning and Freshwater 1988, p. 312; D'Antonio 1986b, p. 269; D'Antonio 1985, p. 204; Sousa 1984, p. 1923; Chapman and Goudey 1983; Turner 1983a, p. 59; Druehl and Green 1982, p. 167; Stewart 1982, p. 53; Webber 1981; R. Lee 1965a, p. 21; R. Lee 1965b, p. 119; Widdowson 1965b, p. 1427; Scagel 1961, p. 528; Stephenson and Stephenson 1961b, p. 228; Rigg and Miller 1949; Doty 1946, p. 323 Display references
Ultrastructure:
Cole et al. 1968; Cole and Lin 1969 Display references
Physiology:
R. Schmid et al. 1994 Display references
Chemistry:
Ragan and Glombitza 1986; Rönnerstrand 1943, p. 48 Display references

 
J F M A M J J A S O N D
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
Pl      xxxxxx       Common, throughout the intertidal on rocks, on Phyllospadix and Neorhodomela, in fully sheltered to fully exposed habitats. Scagel 1957, p. 77. Scagel 1973, p. 134. Hawkes et al. 1979, p. 94. Display references
U          xxxxx    
S        x              
COLUMBIA
RIVER
Pl          xx           Common, in the mid and low intertidal on Phyllospadix and Neorhodomela. Doty 1947, p. 34. Markham and Celestino 1977, p. 259. Display references
U            x          
S        x              
CAPE
ARAGO
Pl      xxxxxxx     Abundant, in the high and mid intertidal on rocks, or on Phyllospadix, Neorhodomela larix and Odonthalia floccosa. Dawson 1965a, p. 14. Display references
U      xxxx    x    
S    xxxxx    x    
CAPE
MENDOCINO
Pl      xxxx           Abundant, in the high and mid intertidal on rocks, or on Neorhodomela larix and Phyllospadix. Kjeldsen 1995, pp. 24, 25. Display references
U      x    x          
S          x            
POINT
ARENA
Pl    xxxxxxx       Common, in the mid intertidal on rocks and on Neorhodomela and Phyllospadix in moderately to fully exposed habitats. Johansen 1966a, p. 98. Kjeldsen 1995, pp. 24, 25. Display references
U            x          
S xx                    
SAN
FRANCISCO
Pl    xxxxx      x   Abundant, in the mid intertidal on rocks, on Phyllospadix and on algae. Smith 1944, p. 114. Display references
U        x          x  
S xxxxxxxxxx    

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Page dated: Mon Feb 13 21:24:26 2006
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