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Vascular Plants of California
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Key to Allium

View taxon page for Allium

(For a list of species in Allium, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Bulblets present in inflorescence, present at bulb bases; disturbed places

2. Bulb 1–2 cm diam; leaves 20–60 cm, 2–4 mm wide, hollow below middle ..... A. vineale

2' Bulb (1.5)3–8 cm diam; leaves 20–100 cm, 5–20 mm diam, solid ..... [A. sativum]

1' Bulblets not present in inflorescence, present at bulb bases or on rhizomes or not; disturbed places or not

3. Leaves 1 per stemovary crests 6, obvious, ± triangular

4. Stigma  ± 0

5. Stamens perianth parts 5–9 mm, inner > outer, margins ± irregular to jagged; stem 20–50 cm ..... A. sanbornii var. sanbornii

5' Stamens ; perianth parts 8–20 mm, ± equal, ; stem generally < 20 cm

6. Plants of DMtns, flowers white; outer bulb coat sculpture ± obvious, cells transversely elongate, intricately contorted; DMtns ..... A. nevadense

6' Plants not of DMtns or flowers not white; outer bulb coat sculpture 0 or cells ± square, in 2–3 rows basally, or obscurely polygonal

7. Perianth parts 8–12 mm;  slender, > flowers ..... A. atrorubens

8. Perianth parts generally deep red-purple (white), , appearing long-acuminate by inrolled margins ..... var. atrorubens

8' Perianth parts pale pink, dark-veined, ±  to  ..... var. cristatum

7' Perianth parts 12–20 mm; pedicels stout, generally < flowers

9. Perianth parts lance-linear, long-tapered;  1–2, stalked, at bulb base; TR, w PR ..... A. monticola

9' Perianth parts lanceolate, acute; bulblets 0; n SnBr, DMoj ..... A. parishii

4' Stigma lobes 3, often slender, 

10. Stamens exserted or ± at same level as perianth

11. Inner perianth parts 1.5 × outer; ovary crests entire or notched ..... A. sanbornii var. congdonii

11' Inner perianth parts ± = outer; ovary crests irregularly  to deeply cut ..... A. howellii

12. Stem (10)± 20(35) cm, slender; flowers generally 10–30; perianth generally pink to lavender (white); ovary crests purple; flower Mar–Apr; s SNF, Teh, SnJV, SnFrB, SCoR, WTR ..... var. howellii

12' Stem 20–60 cm, stout; flowers generally > 50; perianth generally white; ovary crests white or green; flower Apr–Jun; SCoRI, n WTR

13. Stamens exserted 0–2 mm; n WTR ..... var. clokeyi

13' Stamens exserted 2–4 mm; SCoRI ..... var. sanbenitense

10' Stamens included

14. Perianth parts (at least inner) dentate or jagged

15. Stem 25–40 cm ..... A. jepsonii

15' Stem 5–20 cm

16. Outer bulb coats brown to gray; perianth ± , tips , inner parts jagged ..... A. abramsii

16' Outer bulb coats red-brown; perianth , ± straight, inner parts dentate near tip ..... A. denticulatum

14' Perianth parts ± entire

17. Ovary crests entire, notched, or jagged, not dentate to deeply cut

18. Perianth 10–18 mm, maroon or deep red-purple

19. Perianth deep red-purple, tips ± spreading to ± erect; plants of serpentine, se SnFrB (Mount Hamilton Range) ..... A. sharsmithiae

19' Perianth maroon near tips, white or ± green basally, tips reflexed; plants not of serpentine, s SNH, Teh ..... A. shevockii

18' Perianth 6–9 mm, white to pink, in age ± red

20. Inflorescence dense, pedicels straight in fruit; perianth parts  to ovate,  to acute ..... A. munzii

20' Inflorescence open, pedicels curved in fruit; perianth parts lanceolate, acuminate ..... A. parryi

17' Ovary crests dentate to deeply cut

21. Perianth dark red-purple, tips generally recurved to spreading ..... A. fimbriatum var. fimbriatum

21' Perianth white, pink, or lavender, midveins darker, tips erect

22. Flowers (6)8–12 mm ..... A. fimbriatum

23. Stem slender, 10–25 cm; plants not of serpentine; SNE, DMoj ..... var. mohavense

23' Stem stout, 10–37 cm; plants of serpentine; c NCoRI ..... var. purdyi

22' Flowers generally 6–9 mm

24. Stem slender, 7–20 cm; perianth erect; SnFrB (Mount Hamilton Range), SCoR, WTR ..... A. diabolense

24' Stem stout, 25–50 cm; perianth spreading; c SNF (Tuolumne Co.) ..... A. tuolumnense

3' Leaves >= 2 per stem (if 1,  flat or channeled); ovary crests 6, obvious, ± triangular, or ± 0

25. Stem 3–30 mm diam, hollow, inflated below middle; bulb generally 5–10 cm diam; flowers 100–500 ..... [A. cepa]

25' Stem < 3 mm diam unless flattened and/or winged, solid or hollow, not inflated below middle; bulb < 3 cm diam; flowers 5–150

26. Bulbs  or oblong-ovoid, clustered on stout 

27. Stem 50–100 cm; perianth parts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; stamens exserted ..... A. validum

27' Stem 10–40 cm; perianth parts narrowly ovate, acute; stamens including

28. Ovary topped with a low,  cap covering lobes ..... A. haematochiton

28' Ovary crests 6, obvious, triangular, margins papillate or not ..... A. marvinii

26' Bulbs ovoid to ± spheric, not clustered on short rhizome

29. Ovary crests 6, obvious, triangular; bulblets > 3, generally << bulb, generally clustered at bulb base or on rhizome

30. Leaves generally withered in flower; perianth red-purple, rigid-keeled, ± shiny in fruit, tip margins inrolled, parts with a purple crescent adaxially just above base ..... A. campanulatum

30' Leaves generally not withered in flower; perianth white or pink to rose-purple, not keeled, papery in fruit, tip margins ± flat, parts without darker crescent adaxially

31. Perianth parts lanceolate, acuminate; CaRH, SNH, GB ..... A. bisceptrum

31' Perianth parts ovate to elliptic, acute; KR, CaRF, n&c SNF, s SNH ..... A. membranaceum

29' Ovary crests 0 or obscure, not triangular; bulblets 1–3, ± = bulb, within bulb coats or on rhizome

32. Leaves flat or widely channeled, ± sickle-shaped; plant in fruit dry, breaking at ground

33. Outer bulb coat sculpture ± net-like throughout

34. Outer bulb coat cells rectangular, transversely elongate, in ± regular rows

35. Perianth parts lance-linear ..... A. anceps

35' Perianth parts ovate to oblanceolate

36. Stem 15–20 cm, inflorescence held well above ground;  > flower ..... A. lemmonii

36' Stem 3–10 cm, inflorescence held near ground; pedicel ± = flower ..... A. punctum

34' Outer bulb coat cells ± square or polygonal, if transversely elongate then curved and not in regular rows

37. Outer bulb coat cells curved, ± transversely elongate ..... A. tribracteatum

37' Outer bulb coat cells ± rectangular, ± transversely elongate, square, or polygonal ..... A. obtusum

38. Leaves 1 per stem; perianth parts pink, lanceolate, acute ..... var. conspicuum

38' Leaves 1–2 per stem; perianth parts white, oblong-elliptic, obtuse ..... var. obtusum

33' Outer bulb coat sculpture 0 or cells ± square, in 2–3 rows basally

39. Stem cylindric or ± flat, not winged

40. Stamens well including

41. Leaves straight or ± sickle-shaped; flowers 20–30; KR, NCoR, n&c SNF, s SNH, Teh, SCoRI, WTR, SnJt ..... A. cratericola

41' Leaves sickle-shaped; flowers generally 5–10; KR, CaRH, SNH, GB ..... A. parvum (2)

40' Stamens exserted or ± at same level as perianth

42. Leaves 2 per stem ..... A. yosemitense

42' Leaves 1 per stem

43. Filaments smooth ..... A. burlewii

43' Filaments bumpy or warty near base ..... A. hoffmanii

39' Stem ± flat, generally winged above

44. Perianth parts lance-linear, long-acuminate; stamens exserted ..... A. platycaule

44' Perianth parts lanceolate to ovate, obtuse to long-acuminate; stamens including

45. Leaves generally 6–8 mm wide; perianth parts 9–15 mm, long-acuminate ..... A. falcifolium

45' Leaves < 6 mm wide; perianth parts 6–10 mm, obtuse to acute

46. Perianth parts lanceolate, acute, appearing acuminate by inrolled margins ..... A. tolmiei var. tolmiei

46' Perianth parts widely lanceolate to ovate, obtuse (tip margins ± flat)

47. Inner bulb coats white; perianth parts not keeled in fruit ..... A. parvum (2)

47' Inner bulb coats generally pink to red; perianth parts keeled in fruit ..... A. siskiyouense

32' Leaves narrowly channeled to ± cylindric, if flat or widely channeled, not sickle-shaped; plant in fruit dry or not, not breaking at ground

48. Outer bulb coat sculpture 0 or obscure

49. Bulb symmetric, present at flower; rhizomes 0

50. Longest inflorescence bracts >> pedicels; flower 4.5–7 mm ..... A. paniculatum var. paniculatum

50' Longest inflorescence bracts <= pedicels; flower 7–18 mm

51. Inflorescence not ± 1-sided; flowers erect; perianth parts elliptic, obtuse ..... A. neapolitanum

51' Inflorescence generally ± 1-sided; flowers pendent; perianth parts lanceolate, acute ..... A. triquetrum

49' Bulb symmetric or not, ± 0 at flower; rhizomes obscure or obvious

52. Rhizomes obvious, generally 3–5 cm; leaves widely channeled or ± flat, keeled; perianth parts ovate to obovate, , entire ..... A. unifolium

52' Rhizomes obscure, < 2 cm; leaves ± cylindric; perianth parts ± lanceolate, erect, at least inner  ..... A. bolanderi

53. Bulb oblique-ovoid, not tuber-like, outer coat breaking with serrate edges; perianth parts 8–12 mm, narrowly ovate ..... var. bolanderi

53' Bulb oblique-oblong, tuber-like, outer coat breaking with irregular edges; perianth parts 9–14 mm, narrowly lanceolate ..... var. mirabile

48' Outer bulb coat sculpture obvious, ± net-like

54. Outer bulb coat cells square, polygonal, in regular rows, not in ± herringbone pattern, not ± contorted

55. Perianth parts 8–15 mm, spreading (or tips reflexed), inner dentate ..... A. acuminatum

55' Perianth parts 4–9 mm, erect or spreading, entire ..... A. lacunosum

56. Stem 10–25 cm; inflorescence dense, pedicel 0.7–1.5 × flower

57. Leaves generally < stem; stem 15–25 cm; flowers 5–7 mm; s SNF, Teh, w DMoj ..... var. kernense

57' Leaves > stem; stem 10–20 cm; flowers 6–9 mm; n CCo, s SnJV, SCoR, SCo, n ChI ..... var. lacunosum

56' Stem 15–35 cm; inflorescence open, pedicel 1.5–3.5 × flower

58. Bracts 2; flower 6–8 mm; WTR, SnBr, SNE, DMoj ..... var. davisiae

58' Bracts 3; flower 4–6 mm; SCoR, SnBr, PR ..... var. micranthum

54' Outer bulb coat cells transversely elongate, in ± herringbone pattern, or ± contorted

59. Outer bulb coat cells in obscure, wavy, herringbone pattern; perianth parts spreading, outer ± = inner

60. Stem 5–17 cm; perianth parts erect in fruit; flowers persistent – c CCo ..... A. hickmanii

60' Stem 15–50 cm; perianth parts folded over fruit; flowers, pedicels deciduous

61. Ovary crests 6, lateral, ± rectangular; inflorescence dense, pedicels 0.7–2 × flower ..... A. amplectens

61' Ovary crests 0 or 3, central, minute; inflorescence open, pedicels 1.5–4 × flower

62. Leaves 1–3(4) mm wide, widely channeled to cylindric, not keeled; inner bulb coats light yellow; perianth translucent in fruit ..... A. hyalinum

62' Leaves (3)4–6 mm wide, widely channeled or flat, keeled; inner bulb coats white; perianth ± opaque, papery in fruit ..... A. praecox

59' Outer bulb coat cells in obvious, not wavy, herringbone pattern; perianth parts ± erect, outer > inner

63. Perianth parts folded over ovary in fruit; flowers, pedicels deciduous ..... A. serra

63' Perianth parts erect, rigid in fruit; flowers, pedicels persistent

64. Leaves 3–6 per stem, curved to curled; inflorescence dense, pedicels erect, 0.7–2 × flower; on or near sea cliffs ..... A. dichlamydeum

64' Leaves 2–3 per stem, straight to ± curved; inflorescence open, pedicels spreading, 1–3 × flower; not on or near sea cliffs

65. Inner perianth part margins dentate, curled ..... A. crispum

65' Inner perianth part margins entire to dentate, not curled ..... A. peninsulare

66. Leaves curved; flowers 8–12 mm; stigma minute, entire; CCo, SnFrB ..... var. franciscanum

66' Leaves straight; flowers 10–15 mm; stigma 3-lobed or head-like; widespread ..... var. peninsulare

 

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/ [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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