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Vascular Plants of California
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Key to Epilobium

View taxon page for Epilobium

(For a list of species in Epilobium, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Annual from taprootleaves  only near base,  or clustered distally, ± narrowly proximal stem generally peeling

2. Seed hair-tuft 0

3. Fruit wall tough, generally splitting only on distal 1/3; seeds in 2 rows per chamber branches generally  or 

4. Fruit 8–12 mm, sharply 4-angled ..... E. cleistogamum

4' Fruit 3.5–8 mm,  ..... E. campestre

3' Fruit wall flexible, splitting to base; seeds in 1 row per chamber or  into 1 staggered row per capsule; basal branches  or 0

5. Fruit not beaked, central axis persistent ..... E. densiflorum

5' Fruit beaked, central axis disintegrating

6. Hypanthium 1.5–3 mm, sepals 2–6 mm, petals 3–10 mm; fruit 10–21 mm; seeds compressed into 1 staggered row per capsule, 1.8–2.3 mm ..... E. pallidum

6' Hypanthium 0.4–1 mm, sepals 0.7–2 mm, petals 1–3.2 mm; fruit 8–14 mm; seeds in 1 row per chamber, 0.9–1.6 mm ..... E. torreyi

2' Seed hair-tuft present

7. Plant 2–20 dm, ± glandular 1.5–8(16) mm, sepals 1.2–8 mm, petals 2–15(20) mm; seed 1.5–2.7 mm ..... E. brachycarpum

7' Plant 0.5–4.5 dm, nonglandular; hypanthium 0.4–1.5 mm, sepals 1.3–2.5 mm, petals 1.8–5 mm; seed 0.6–1.2 mm

8. Leaves generally folded along midrib, distal clustered; inflorescence dense; petals 1.8–3 mm; seeds 0.6–0.9 mm,  ..... E. foliosum

8' Leaves flat, not clustered; inflorescence open; petals 2–5 mm; seeds 0.9–1.2 mm, netted ..... E. minutum

1' Perennial herb to subshrub from , taproot 0; leaves generally opposite up to inflorescence, generally narrowly lanceolate to ; proximal stem not peeling (except Epilobium rigidum)

9. Hypanthium 17–34 mm; corolla red-orange, ± 

10. Matted per 1–2 dm; proximal leaves white-canescent, nonglandular, distal leaves glandular; NCo, NCoRO ..... E. septentrionale

10' Clumped  herb to subshrub 1–12 dm; all leaves alike, generally not white-canescent, glandular or not; widespread CA-FP, D ..... E. canum

11. Leaves  to lanceolate, generally < 6 mm wide, often clustered; perennial herb to subshrub 2–12 dm ..... subsp. canum

11' Leaves lanceolate to widely ovate, generally > 6 mm wide, not clustered; perennial herb 1–5 dm

12. Leaves widely ovate, prominently toothed, lateral veins conspicuous ..... subsp. garrettii

12' Leaves lanceolate to ovate, ±  to generally toothed, lateral veins obscure ..... subsp. latifolium

9' Hypanthium generally 0.4–8(16) mm; corolla white or cream-yellow to purple

13. Stigma 4-lobed; sepals (3)6–15 mm; petals (6)10–24 mm, pink to rose-purple or cream

14. Petals cream-yellow; hair-tufts ± red, persistent; fruit 35–75 mm ..... E. luteum

14' Petals pink to rose-purple; hair-tufts white, deciduous; fruit 8–45 mm

15. Stem 4–10 dm;  30–90 mm, veins ± red, conspicuous; seed 0.9–1.3 mm, ridged ..... E. oreganum

15' Stem < 4 dm; leaf 6–45 mm, veins obscure; seed 1.4–3.4 mm, papillate

16. Petals 6–10 mm; seeds 1–2 per chamber (8 per fruit); fruit 8–16 mm ..... E. nivium

16' Petals 11–24 mm; seeds > 8 per chamber; fruit 20–45 mm

17. Plant 1–4 dm, nonglandular; leaf 20–45 mm,  2–6 mm; hypanthium 1–1.8 mm; seed 2.5–3.4 mm ..... E. rigidum

17' Plant < 2.5 dm, sometimes glandular (especially ovaries); leaf 6–26 mm, petiole 0–3 mm; hypanthium 2–6 mm; seed 1.4–2.1 mm

18. Pedicel in fruit 2–3 mm; leaf 6–20 mm, tip round to , petiole 0–3 mm; plant ± glaucous ..... E. obcordatum

18' Pedicel in fruit 6–25 mm; leaf 13–26 mm, tip ± ; petiole 0; plant not glaucous ..... E. siskiyouense

13' Stigma entire, club-like (occasionally cylindric); sepals 1–7.5 mm; petals 1.6–14 mm, white to rose-purple

19. Stem ± , with offset  or fleshy underground shoots

20. Leaf veins ± obscure; stem with fleshy bulb-like shoot; seed papillate

21. Pedicel in fruit 10–40 mm; inflorescence ± nodding; leaf 5–45 mm ..... E. hallianum

21' Pedicel in fruit 0–5 mm; inflorescence erect; leaf 10–65 mm ..... E. saximontanum

20' Leaf veins conspicuous; stem with  or fleshy shoot; seed ridged ..... E. ciliatum

22. Petals 2–6(9) mm, white to pink; leaf lanceolate, reduced in open inflorescence – basal rosette present ..... subsp. ciliatum

22' Petals 4–14 mm, pink to rose-purple; leaf lanceolate to ovate, little reduced on crowded inflorescence

23. Stem with fleshy shoot; inflorescence long ..... subsp. glandulosum

23' Stem with leafy rosette or shoot; inflorescence flat-topped ..... subsp. watsonii

19' Stem ± ascending, clumped or ; leafy or thread-like stolons sometimes tipped by fleshy 

24. Plant ± glabrous (except scattered inflorescence hairs)

25. Plant 0.8–3(4) dm, matted; stolons thread-like;  20–65 mm; inflorescence open (bracts << internodes); leaf tip obtuse ..... E. oregonense

25' Plant < 8.5 dm, clumped; stolons short, scaly; pedicels 5–25 mm; inflorescence crowded (bracts ± = internodes); leaf tip subacute ..... E. glaberrimum

26. Stem < 3.5 dm; leaf 10–35 mm, lanceolate to narrowly ovate; fruit 20–55 mm ..... subsp. fastigiatum

26' Stem 2–8.5 dm; leaf 20–70 mm, ± narrowly lanceolate; fruit 45–75 mm ..... subsp. glaberrimum

24' Plant variously hairy, often in  lines on stem

27. Stem densely glandular-hairy; petals 2–3 mm, white ..... E. howellii

27' Stem hairy, nonglandular; petals 2–9 mm, white or pink to rose-purple

28. Stolons thread-like, tipped by fleshy bulblets; leaf ± narrowly lanceolate; seed 1.4–2.2 mm, hair-tuft persistent

29. Leaf densely minutely ; inflorescence minutely strigose and glandular ..... E. leptophyllum

29' Leaf minutely strigose only on margins and midrib; inflorescence minutely strigose, nonglandular ..... E. palustre

28' Stolons short, leafy; leaf generally lanceolate or wider; seeds 0.7–2.1 mm, hair-tuft generally deciduous

30. Plant cespitose, < 2.2 dm; leaf 8–28 mm; fruit 17–40 mm

31. Inflorescence ± nodding;  in fruit 10–55 mm; seed 0.7–1.4 mm ..... E. anagallidifolium

31' Inflorescence erect; pedicel in fruit 2–18 mm; seed 1.5–2.1 mm, papillate ..... E. clavatum

30' Plant loosely clumped, 1–5 dm; leaf 15–55 mm; fruit 40–100 mm

32. Pedicel in fruit 5–15 mm; fruit 40–65 mm; seed 0.9–1.2 mm, papillate; petals generally pink to rose-purple ..... E. hornemannii subsp. hornemannii

32' Pedicel in fruit 20–45 mm; fruit 50–100 mm; seed 1.1–1.6 mm, netted; petals generally white ..... E. lactiflorum

 

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/ [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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