Jepson eFlora: Key page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
    Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
   
   

Key to Phacelia

View taxon page for Phacelia

(For a list of species in Phacelia, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

Key to Groups

1. Biennial or  herb from ± woody taproot or branched  ..... Group 1

1' Annual from slender taproot (some key in both of the following groups)

2. Most cauline  blades deeply lobed to compound (some sinuses reaching midrib) ..... Group 2

2' Most cauline  blades  to shallowly lobed (proximal-most sometimes deeply few-lobed at base, but sinuses generally not reaching midrib) ..... Group 3

Group 1: Biennial or  herb from ± woody taproot or branched 

1. Seeds 3–200; calyx  generally ± alike

2. Leaf  5–25 mm, ± round; stamens style cleft < 1/4; n W&I, n&e DMoj ..... P. perityloides

3. Corolla 12–15 mm;  in fruit 10–30 mm, ; fruit 2–2.5 mm ..... var. jaegeri

3' Corolla 10–12 mm;  in fruit 5–15 mm,  to ; fruit ± 4 mm ..... var. perityloides

2' Leaf  15–120 mm,  or  to widely stamens style cleft 1/3–3/4; NW, CaRH, SNH, MP

4. Corolla persistent in fruitnectary gland present; seed pits in longitudinal rows ..... P. sericea var. ciliosa

4' Corolla deciduousnectary gland 0; seed pits not in longitudinal rows

5. Inflorescence head-like, densestamens glabrous; plant 10–30 cm ..... P. hydrophylloides

5' Inflorescence panicle-like, generally ± open proximallystamens hairy; plants generally > 30 cm

6. Corolla 10–12 mm, pale blue to purple; seeds 30–60 ..... P. bolanderi

6' Corolla 3–7 mm, cream to green or brown-white; seeds 12–16 ..... P. procera

1' Seeds 1–4; calyx  ± not alike

7. Leaves caulinecompoundleaflets coarsely toothed or lobed ..... P. ramosissima

7' Leaves mostly , generally  (or basal lobed to compound); leaflets  or generally 0

8. Basal leaves  or 2–7-lobed

9. Stem densely glandularleaves generally ± green (± gray) ..... P. corymbosa

9' Stem generally not or sparsely glandularleaves generally silvery to ± white or ± gray or ± green

10. Basal leaves generally  to obovate to ± round; coastal dunes, coastal foothills, or coastal mtns, < 1000 m

11. Lobes of  leaves 0(2); corolla white to cream; coastal dunes, n NCo, < 20 m ..... P. argentea

11' Lobes of  leaves generally 2–7; corolla blue to purple (white); coastal bluffs, woodlandchaparral, rocky slopes, s NCo, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, < 1000 m ..... P. californica (2)

10' Basal leaves generally  to widely ; inland mtns, 380–4000 m ..... P. hastata

12. Stem  to , 5–20(30) cm; hairs generally calyx  generally glandular ..... var. compacta

12' Stem  to ± , 20–50 cm; hairs generally ± calyx  generally not glandular ..... var. hastata

8' Basal leaves generally dissected or compoundsegments or leaflets 3–15

13. Stem sparsely stiff-hairy; veins of  leaves generally not prominent ..... P. mutabilis

13' Stem densely stiff-hairy; veins of  leaves generally prominent

14. Biennial or weak  herb; central stem , generally 1 ..... P. heterophylla var. virgata

14' Perennial herb; central stems generally  to , generally > 1

15. Calyx   to narrowly  to obovate, ± overlapping in fruitcorolla narrowly campanulate ..... P. imbricata

16. Segments of  leaves 3–7; outer calyx  , not glandular ..... var. patula

16' Segments of  leaves 7–15; outer calyx  narrowly  to ovate to obovate, generally glandular

17. Corolla   to ± divergent; inflorescence dense, spike-like ..... var. bernardina

17' Corolla   to incurved; inflorescence open, panicle-like ..... var. imbricata

15' Calyx   to narrowly  or oblanceolate, not overlapping in fruitcorolla campanulate

18. Corolla white to cream, 5–9 mm, limb 4–8 mm diam; stamens 9–14 mm; calyx  8–12 mm in fruit ..... P. egena

18' Corolla blue to purple (white) or green- or yellow-white, 3.5–7 mm, limb 3–6 mm diam; stamens 7–10 mm; calyx  5–8 mm in fruit

19. Style 8–12 mm; corolla blue to purple (white) ..... P. californica (2)

19' Style 6–9 mm; corolla green- or yellow-white ..... P. nemoralis

20. Mid-stem generally < 7 mm diam; corolla 3.5–5 mm; seed 1.5–2 mm ..... var. nemoralis

20' Mid-stem generally 7–10 mm diam; corolla 5–6 mm; seed 2–2.5 mm ..... var. oregonensis

Group 2: Annual from slender taproot; most cauline  blades deeply lobed to compound (some sinuses reaching midrib)

1. Corollas, or at least some, persistent, withering in fruit, ± enclosing fruit

2. Seeds 1–4; stamens corolla blue, purple, or white

3. Stem stiffly  tips inflorescence dense, generally 2–4-branched; fruit glabrous proximallycalyx  ± alike ..... P. tanacetifolia

3' Stem  to weakly  tips rounded; inflorescence ± open proximallydense distally, generally unbranched; fruit ±  proximally; calyx  not alike ..... P. umbrosa

2' Seeds 5–30; stamens corolla generally yellow (lobes occasionally ± purple in Phacelia adenophora; ± white in Phacelia tetramera)

4. Corolla  inside; stamens puberulent

5. Corolla 3.5–8 mm; style 1.5–3 mm; stamens 2.5–5 mm ..... P. adenophora

5' Corolla 2–4 mm; style 0.5–1.5 mm; stamens 1.5–3 mm ..... P. monoensis

4' Corolla glabrous inside; stamens glabrous

6. Seeds cross-striate, striae 12–14; plants 10–40 cm ..... P. inundata

6' Seeds cross-furrowed, furrows 5–9; plants 2–15 cm

7. Sepalspetals generally 5; corolla 2–3 mm ..... P. inyoensis

7' Sepalspetals generally 4; corolla 1.3–2 mm ..... P. tetramera

1' Corollas generally deciduous in fruit

8. Seeds generally >= 7

9. Corolla generally 2–6 mm, tubular- or bell-shaped; stamensstyles ± 1–4 mm

10. Glands on distal steminflorescence axis dark

11. Inflorescence axis generally exceeding leavesseeds 15–30, cross-furrows 5–8; s SCoRI, TR, PR, W&I, D ..... P. affinis

11' Inflorescence axis generally not exceeding leavesseeds 7–14, cross-furrows 8–10; CaR, GB ..... P. glandulifera

10' Glands on distal steminflorescence axis 0 or not dark

12. Pedicels straight; calyx  generally  to seeds cross-furrowed; D ..... P. ivesiana

12' Pedicels curved; calyx  oblanceolate or obovate to spoon-shaped; seeds pitted; SCo ..... P. stellaris

9' Corolla 5–20 mm,  to funnel- or bell-shaped; stamens 3–9 mm, styles 2–8 mm

13. Seeds cross-furrowed

14. Inflorescence axis generally not exceeding leavesproximal leaves 1–2-compound; stamens  ..... P. bicolor

14' Inflorescence axis generally exceeding leavesproximal leaves deeply lobed to 1-compound; stamens glabrous

15. Stem generally , 7–60 cm; corolla  white or pink; seed 0.5–1 mm ..... P. brachyloba

15' Stem  to , 5–30 cm; corolla  blue or pink or violet; seed 1–1.5 mm ..... P. fremontii

13' Seeds pitted

16. Stem generally , 30–120 cm, 0–few-branched distal to base; leaves densely glandular – s ChI (except Santa Barbara Island) ..... P. lyonii

16' Stem  to , or , 2–40 cm, generally branched at base; leaves not densely glandular

17. Fruit 6–9 mm, obovoid, ±  proximally ..... P. insularis

18. Stem generally  to style 2.5–4 mm; seed 1.5–2 mm; NCo, CCo ..... var. continentis

18' Stem generally style 5–6 mm; seed 1–1.5 mm; n ChI ..... var. insularis

17' Fruit 4–7 mm, ovoid, ± swollen proximally

19. Corolla tubethroat white,  ± violet ..... P. davidsonii

19' Corolla light blue to purple throughout ..... P. douglasii

8' Seeds 1–6 (1–12 in Phacelia malvifolia)

20. Simple leaves present, especially distally or toothed

21. Leaf  ±  to ± round; corolla cream-white ..... P. malvifolia

21' Leaf   to  or oblanceolate; corolla ± blue to lavender

22. Calyx  in flower 3–5 mm, not alike, especially in fruitstamens 2–4 mm; mtns s and e of GV ..... P. austromontana

22' Calyx  in flower 2–3 mm, ± alike in fruitstamens 4–5 mm; mtns west of GV ..... P. breweri

20' Simple leaves present or not, distally or not, generally toothed to lobed

23. Calyx  generally 3–5-pinnately lobed – s ChI (San Clemente, Santa Barbara islands) ..... P. floribunda

23' Calyx   to 

24. Calyx   abaxially, margin stiff-ciliate, midrib and ± 2° veins raised

25. Calyx  4–6 mm, 6–10 mm in fruitcorolla 8–10 mm; stamens 8–12 mm; style 6–8 mm; w CA-FP, c&s SN, Teh, GV ..... P. ciliata

25' Calyx  3–4 mm, 5–7 mm in fruitcorolla 3–4 mm; stamens 1–3 mm; style ± 2 mm; e CaR, MP ..... P. thermalis

24' Calyx  generally short- to long-hairy abaxially, margin  but not stiffly so, midrib only raised

26. Calyx  ± not alike, especially in fruitseeds 1–2(4)

27. Calyx   to corolla pale blue to pale lavender; seeds generally 1 ..... P. platyloba

27' Calyx  generally corolla blue or white, throat marked with dark lavender spots  corolla scales, spots 0 if corolla white; seeds generally 1–2(4) ..... P. distans

26' Calyx  ± alike; seeds generally 2–4

28. Stamensstyles stamens 3–5 mm; style 3–5 mm ..... P. cryptantha

28' Stamensstyle stamens 4–15 mm; style 5–15 mm

29. Seed adaxially not clearly ridged and grooved; glandular hairs of inflorescence sparse

30. Calyx  ± straight, ± enclosing fruit, in contact with fruit at base and distally ..... P. hubbyi

30' Calyx  ± curved, forming loose basket around fruit, in contact with fruit only at base

31. Fruit hairs sparse, not bulb-based ..... P. vallis-mortae

31' Fruit hairs dense, bulb-based ..... P. cicutaria

32. Corolla yellow-white; calyx  ± yellow- to white-long-stiff-hairy ..... var. cicutaria

32' Corolla lavender; calyx  gray-long-stiff-hairy ..... var. hispida

29' Seed adaxially with central ridge separating 2 longitudinal grooves; glandular hairs of inflorescence dense

33. Pedicels ± thread-like, > 5 mm in fruit ..... P. pedicellata

33' Pedicels stout, < 5 mm in fr

34. Corolla  white; fruit ovoid, sparsely short-stiff-hairy ..... P. amabilis

34' Corolla  blue-lavender or purple; fruit ovoid to spheric ..... P. crenulata

35. Corolla ± 4 mm, tubethroat white,  lavender to blue; stamensstyle  < 2 mm ..... var. minutiflora

35' Corolla >= 4.5 mm, tube white at least at base, throat purple; stamensstyle  >= 3.5 mm

36. Stem glandular distallycorolla 5–10 mm; stamens unequal, style  >= 9 mm; seed margin  ..... var. ambigua

36' Stem generally glandular throughout; corolla 4.5–7 mm; stamens equal, style  3.5–11 mm; seed margin corrugated ..... var. crenulata

Group 3: Annual from slender taproot; most cauline  blades  to shallowly lobed (proximal-most sometimes deeply few-lobed at base, but sinuses generally not reaching midrib)

1. Corollas, or at least some, persistent, withering in fruit, ± enclosing fruit

2. Seeds 1–4; stamens 3–7 mm, ; SN

3. Fruit ± spheric, not calyx  4–7 mm in fruitseeds 2–4; leaves , lobes 0 ..... P. quickii

3' Fruit ellipsoid to ovoid, ± calyx  3–4 mm in fruitseeds 1–2; leaves generally , lobes 0–6

4. Corolla violet to purple; seeds (1)2; calyx  ± not alike ..... P. marcescens

4' Corolla white to pale blue; seeds generally 1; calyx  ± alike ..... P. stebbinsii

2' Seeds generally 5–50; stamens 1–5 mm, ; SNE, n DMoj

5. Seeds 20–50, pitted; calyx  ± not alike ..... P. saxicola

5' Seeds 5–25, cross-furrowed; calyx  generally alike

6. Corolla  inside; stamens puberulent ..... P. monoensis

6' Corolla glabrous inside; stamens glabrous

7. Sepalspetals generally 5; corolla 2–3 mm ..... P. inyoensis

7' Sepalspetals generally 4; corolla 1.3–2 mm ..... P. tetramera

1' Corolla deciduous in fruit

8. Seeds 1–4

9. Cauline   generally as long as wide; leavesstems, and calyx  long-stiff-hairy, hairs bulb-based

10. Corolla 5–7 mm; stamens 5–10 mm; seeds generally 4 ..... P. malvifolia var. malvifolia

10' Corolla 3–5 mm; stamens 2–3 mm; seeds generally 2 ..... P. rattanii

9' Cauline   generally longer than wide; leavesstems, and calyx  not long-stiff-hairy, hairs not bulb-based

11. Leaf  to lobed,  generally crenate or ± toothed; seed adaxially with central ridge separating 2 longitudinal grooves

12. Corolla 3–7 mm; stamensstyle 2–5 mm

13. Corolla 5–7 mm, widely bell-shaped; stamensstyle 3–5 mm; seeds 2.5–3.5 mm; fruit ovoid ..... P. anelsonii

13' Corolla 3–5 mm, bell-shaped; stamensstyle 2–3 mm; seeds 2–3 mm; fruit spheric ..... P. coerulea

12' Corolla 4–10 mm; stamens 10–15 mm, style 12–15 mm ..... P. crenulata

14. Corolla ± 4 mm; stamensstyle  < 2 mm ..... var. minutiflora

14' Corolla >= 4.5 mm; stamensstyle  >= 3.5 mm

15. Stem glandular distallycorolla 5–10 mm; stamens unequal; style  >= 9 mm; seed margin  ..... var. ambigua

15' Stem generally glandular throughout; corolla 4.5–7 mm; stamens equal; style  3.5–11 mm; seed margin corrugated ..... var. crenulata

11' Leaf  or lobed,  generally entire or few-toothed; seed adaxially not ridged and grooved

16. Stamens short-hairy ..... P. humilis

17. Calyx  8–12 mm in fruitstamens 6–8 mm, clearly  ..... var. dudleyi

17' Calyx  5–8 mm in fruitstamens 4–6 mm, ±  ..... var. humilis

16' Stamens glabrous

18. Corolla narrowly bell-shaped, 2–4 mm, scales yellow ..... P. racemosa

18' Corolla widely bell-shaped or , 3–6 mm, scales not yellow

19. Stem wirycorolla  violet to purple ..... P. greenei

19' Stem not wirycorolla widely bell-shaped,  blue to lavender

20. Corolla pale blue to blue; fruit  ..... P. breweri

20' Corolla pale lavender to lavender; fruit not 

21. Style cleft ± to base; calyx  subequal to equal, alike ..... P. eisenii

21' Style cleft generally 1/3–1/2, calyx  unequal, not alike, especially in fruit

22. Calyx  in fruit 4–6 mm, short-stiff-hairy, cilia < 1 mm ..... P. austromontana

22' Calyx  in fruit 8–10 mm, , cilia < to > 1 mm ..... P. novenmillensis

8' Seeds generally >= 5 (occasionally fewer due to abortion)

23. Leaf blades, especially proximal, generally as wide as long

24. Corolla 7–40 mm; stamens (4)10–45 mm; style (3)8–45 mm

25. Stamen bases with 0 wings

26. Cymes dense; plants 30–200 cm; some  leaves not deeply lobed; corolla limb 25–40 mm diam ..... P. grandiflora

26' Cymes open; plants 10–100 cm; some  leaves deeply lobed; corolla limb 10–25 mm diam ..... P. viscida

27. Corolla  to bell-shaped, white, limb 10–15 mm diam; style , 3–10 mm – Santa Barbara, Ventura cos. ..... var. albiflora

27' Corolla throat white, limb 15–25 mm diam, pale lavender to bright blue; style  or , 5–16 mm ..... var. viscida

25' Stamen bases with 2 wings

28. Stamen base wings hairy; corolla purple (white) throughout or with white spot at base of each 

29. Corolla purple (white) throughout, ± bell-shaped with slight constriction at throattube length > limb width ..... P. minor

29' Corolla purple with white spot at base of each , shallow-rotate to widely bell-shaped, tube length < limb width ..... P. parryi

28' Stamen base wings glabrouscorolla white or pink to bright blue throughout or with markings at base of sinuses

30. Seeds 10–24; corolla 7–12 mm, white to pale magenta or pale blue, occasionally with diffuse area lacking pigment at base of sinuses ..... P. longipes

30' Seeds >= 40; corolla 6–40 mm, deep to sky blue with white spots at base of sinuses

31. Style cleft generally 2/3–3/4; s SNH, Teh (e slope), w edge DMoj ..... P. nashiana

31' Style cleft generally 1/4–1/2; DMoj, n&w DSon ..... P. campanularia

32. Corolla , generally < 25 mm, length <= width; w DSon ..... var. campanularia

32' Corolla , generally > 25 mm, length >= width; DMoj, n DSon ..... var. vasiformis

24' Corolla 3–12 mm; stamens 2–10 mm; style 1–12 mm

33. Leavesstemscalyx  long-stiff-hairy, hairs bulb-based; fruit 2–3 mm ..... P. malvifolia var. loasifolia

33' Leavesstemscalyx  short-stiff-hairy, hairs not bulb-based; fruit 3–7 mm

34. Seeds not pitted, cross-furrows 4–8; calyx  1.5–3 mm, 2–5 mm in fruit; fruit generally spheric

35. Corolla 8–12 mm; stamens 5–6 mm; style 5–6 mm ..... P. calthifolia

35' Corolla 4–7 mm; stamens 2–4 mm; style 2–3 mm

36. Corolla cream-white; inflorescence axis among leavesglands not dark ..... P. neglecta

36' Corolla violet to purple; inflorescence axis generally exceeding leavesglands ± dark ..... P. pachyphylla

34' Seeds pitted, cross-furrows 0; calyx  2–5 mm, 4–9 mm in fruit; fruit ovoid to ± 

37. Corolla 6–12 mm; style 3–5 mm

38. Corolla narrowly bell-shaped, limb generally 3–5 mm diam ..... P. mustelina

38' Corolla widely bell-shaped, limb generally > 5 mm diam ..... P. pulchella var. gooddingii

37' Corolla 3–6 mm; style 1–2 mm

39. Leaf  widely  to obovate, base margin  to ± toothed; calyx  not alike ..... P. parishii (2)

39' Leaf  ± round, base  to ± lobed, margin clearly toothed; calyx  generally alike

40. Calyx  6–8 mm in fruit, some 1–2 mm wide;    to irregularly toothed ..... P. peirsoniana

40' Calyx  4–6 mm in fruit, generally < 1 mm wide;    to weakly lobed, lobes  ..... P. rotundifolia

23' Leaf blades generally longer than wide

41. Stem  to ± corolla 1–2 mm; inflorescence , partly hidden by leaves ..... P. cookei

41' Stem generally  to corolla >= 2 mm; inflorescence generally terminal, not hidden by leaves

42. Seeds 20–80+

43. Leaves cauline, gradually reduced distally on stem toothed to ± lobed ..... P. lemmonii

43' Leaves ± , ± abruptly reduced distally on stem  to ± toothed ..... P. parishii (2)

42' Seeds <= 20

44. Proximal distal (especially in fruit), generally S-shaped or  in fruit

45. Fruit obovoid, ± flattened; corolla lavender to violet; NCo, CCo, n ChI ..... P. insularis

46. Stem generally  to style 2.5–4 mm; seed 1.5–2 mm; NCo, CCo ..... var. continentis

46' Stem generally style 5–6 mm; seed 1–1.5 mm; n ChI ..... var. insularis

45' Fruit ovoid, swollen at base; corolla tube white to ± yellow,  blue to violet; SN, TR, PR, SNE, DMoj

47. Proximal  2–8 mm in fruit; fruit 2.5–3.5 mm ..... P. orogenes

47' Proximal  5–25 mm in fruit; fruit 4–7 mm

48. Corolla 4–8 mm; style 2–4 mm ..... P. curvipes

48' Corolla 7–15 mm; style 4–8 mm ..... P. davidsonii

44' Proximal  generally = distal, generally straight in fruit

49. Leaf , or narrowly (ob)lanceolate,  to indistinct 

50. Calyx  1–3 mm, 2–8 mm in fruitcorolla 2–6 mm; stamensstyle 2–5 mm

51. Corolla 2–3 mm; stamensstyle ± 2 mm; style glabrous; KR ..... P. leonis

51' Corolla 3–6 mm; stamensstyle 3–5 mm; style ; KR, CaRH ..... P. pringlei

50' Calyx  3–5 mm, 5–15 mm in fruitcorolla 5–10 mm; stamensstyle 5–14 mm

52. Pedicels < 2 mm in fruitcalyx  ± alike; fruit 5–8 mm; ne California ..... P. linearis

52' Pedicels generally 2–5 mm in fruitcalyx  not alike, especially in fruit; fruit 3–5 mm; s CA

53. Stamens  or ± , subequal, 5–9 mm, filaments generally white; corolla tube base white to lavender,  ± , lavender ..... P. exilis

53' Stamens , unequal, 5–14 mm, filaments violet; corolla tube base generally yellow,  ± , white, aging pale blue ..... P. mohavensis

49' Leaf  or  to , clearly petioled

54. Seeds not pitted, cross-furrows 7–9 ..... P. gymnoclada

54' Seeds pitted, cross-furrows 0

55. Corolla 6–15 mm

56. Leaf  toothed to ± lobed; calyx  short-hairy, not clearly corolla tube yellow, lobes lavender to purple

57. Corolla 9–14 mm; seeds 8–10; nw PR ..... P. keckii

57' Corolla 7–11 mm; seeds 10–16; NCoRI, c SNF, CW ..... P. suaveolens

56' Leaf   or few-lobed near base; calyx   to short-hairy, clearly stiff-ciliate; corolla lavender to violet

58. Corolla 6–10 mm; stamens 3–5 mm; styles 3–5.5 mm ..... P. congdonii

58' Corolla 10–15 mm; stamens 8–10 mm; styles 6–10 mm ..... P. divaricata

55' Corolla 3–8 mm

59. Stamens 7–8 mm; style 5–9 mm

60. Stems short- to long-stiff-hairy, many hairs > 1 mm; corolla generally white; SCoRO, WTR ..... P. grisea

60' Stems  to short-stiff-hairy, hairs generally < 1 mm; corolla lavender to violet; s CaRH, SN, MP ..... P. purpusii

59' Stamens 2–4 mm; style 1–4 mm

61. Calyx  4–6 mm in fruit, cilia < 1 mm; inflorescence open proximally; W&I, ne DMtns (Clark Mtn Range) ..... P. barnebyana

61' Calyx  7–11 mm in fruit, cilia generally > 1 mm; inflorescence dense; s CaR, n&c SN, e SnFrB, SCoRI

62. Corolla white to light lavender,  violet-streaked;  veins not impressed; fruit not beaked; calyx lobes ± alike; e SnFrB, SCoRI ..... P. phacelioides

62' Corolla tube white to lavender,  generally purple;  veins impressed; fruit beaked; calyx lobes not alike; e KR, n&c SNF, SNH ..... P. vallicola

 

Contact/Feedback

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/ [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.