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Vascular Plants of California
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Key to Boraginaceae

View taxon page for Boraginaceae

 

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Plants non-green, parasitic ..... PHOLISMA

1' Plants green, non-parasitic

2. Ovary deeply (2)4-lobed, style base generally ± hidden within fruit 1–4 free nutlets

3. Nutlets 

4. Corolla blue to red-purple; nutlet ± spheric or disk-shaped, prickles biennial herb ..... CYNOGLOSSUM

4' Corolla white; nutlet generally prickles straight or hooked at tip, not annual

5. Calyx  in fruit unequal, upper 2 >> others, partly fused, arched over 1 nutlet, with 5–10 stout spines each with hooked bristlesnutlets 2 ..... HARPAGONELLA

5' Calyx  in fruit ± equal or, if unequal, upper 2 > others, free, not arched over 1 nutlet, without spines but with hooked or straight pricklesnutlets generally 4 ..... PECTOCARYA

3' Nutlets ± 

6. Corolla anthers 5–8 mm, closely  to style, separating in age ..... BORAGO

6' Corolla , or ± tubular (except Symphytum); anthers < 5 mm, generally not closely  to style

7. Flowers 1–2 per  calyx  with 1–2 teeth in fruit ..... ASPERUGO

7' Flowers 1 per distal   or in 1–many dense to elongate , variously arranged; calyx  without teeth in fruit

8. Nutlet  ± flat to strong-convex, with thick rim

9. Corolla appendages  to , generally distal to antherscorolla throat ± expanded distal to tube or tube and throat not differentiated ..... ANCHUSA

9' Corolla appendages lance-linear to , at same level as antherscorolla throat expanded distal to tube ..... SYMPHYTUM

8' Nutlet  flat, curved, or grooved, without thick rim

10. Receptacle ± flat; nutlet  generally  (except Mertensia)

11. Shrub, 1–3+ m ..... ECHIUM (2)

11' Annualbiennial herb

12. Corolla white to yellow

13. Corolla tubeinflorescence bracts throughout ..... LITHOSPERMUM

13' Corolla tube << inflorescence bracts at base or to middle ..... [Myosotis verna]

12' Corolla generally blue to purple (white to yellow)

14. Corolla ±  ..... ECHIUM (2)

14' Corolla 

15. Corolla often ±  or bell-shaped, blue, generally pink in  ..... MERTENSIA

15' Corolla  or wide-funnel-shaped, generally blue, white, or yellow ..... MYOSOTIS

10' Receptacle ± conic or elongate; nutlet  generally lateral

16. Nutlet margin prickles generally 

17. Perennial herb (biennial);   to  in fruitreceptacle ± 1/2 nutlet ..... HACKELIA

17' Annual  in fruitreceptacle ± = nutlet ..... LAPPULA

16' Nutlet margin prickles 0 or not 

18. Corolla tubelimb orange or yellow (red-orange)

18' Corolla tubelimb white to cream-yellow

20. Nutlet adaxially grooved distal to , scar raised or generally not ..... CRYPTANTHA

20' Nutlet adaxially keeled distal to ; scar generally raised ..... PLAGIOBOTHRYS

2' Ovary  or shallow-lobed, style base visible; fruit generally a capsule (4 initially fused nutlets in Heliotropium, Tiquilia)

21. Shrub, small tree

22. Leaf  < 6 cm wide; stamens stigmas not lobed; seeds 2–15 ..... ERIODICTYON

22' Leaf  (3-)10–35 cm wide; stamens stigmas 2-lobed; seeds >= 200 ..... WIGANDIA

21' Annual herbsubshrub

23. Calyx  not alike, outer 3  ..... TRICARDIA

23' Calyx  alike or not, not 

24. Calyx  appendages generally present (0 in Pholistoma membranaceum, sometimes 0 in Nemophila pulchella); annual

25. Ovaryfruit hairy, not bristly ..... NEMOPHILA

25' Ovaryfruit bristly-hairy ..... PHOLISTOMA

24' Calyx  appendages 0; annual herbsubshrub

26. Styles 2, clearly distinct throughout length

27' Plant generally < 0.5 m

28. Annual ..... NAMA (2)

28' Perennial herb

29. Leaves inflorescence not sphericinterrupted by leaf-like bracts ..... Eriodictyon lobbii

29' Leaves crenate-dentate; inflorescence spheric, not interrupted by leaf-like bracts ..... Nama rothrockii

26' Styles 0–1, 2-lobed or not, sometimes nearly to base

30. Leaves cauline ..... DRAPERIA

30' Leaves  or, if cauline, at least some 

31. Ovary ± lobed; fruit nutlets

32. Style 0 or not lobed; stigma 1 ..... HELIOTROPIUM

32' Style deeply 2-lobed; stigmas 2 ..... TIQUILIA

31' Ovary not lobed; fruitcapsule

33. Annual

34. Herbage sticky; ovules on both sides of placenta; 1–2 seeds persistent in fruit ..... EUCRYPTA

34' Herbage generally not sticky (except Emmenanthe, some Phacelia species); ovules on 1 side of placentaseeds not persistent in fruit

35. Stamens generally unequal, attached at different levels ..... NAMA (2)

35' Stamens generally equal, attached ± at same level

36. Flowers ± subspreading to pendentcorolla persistent, white, yellow, or pink, in age papery ..... EMMENANTHE

36' Flowers  to corolla generally deciduous, blue to purple, occasionally persistent, yellow (purple), in age not papery ..... PHACELIA (2)

33' Perennial herb

37. Plant with fleshy-fibrous or tuber-like roots or base bulb-like; style ± 2-lobed

38. Leaves compound to , deep-lobed, sinuses reaching midrib, stamens seeds 1–3 ..... HYDROPHYLLUM

38' Leaves , toothed, or lobed, sinuses not reaching midrib; stamens seeds many ..... ROMANZOFFIA

37' Plant taprooted, base not bulb-like, tubers 0; style 2-lobed to -branched

39. Inflorescence many-flowered; leaves generally lobed to compound, sometimes  ..... PHACELIA (2)

39' Inflorescence 1–several-flowered; leaves 

40. Inflorescence 1-flowered; style tip 2-lobed; seeds many ..... HESPEROCHIRON

40' Inflorescence 1–several-flowered; style cleft ± to base; seeds 2–4 ..... HOWELLANTHUS

 

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Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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