Jepson eFlora: Key page
Vascular Plants of California
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Key to Asteraceae

View taxon page for Asteraceae

 

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

Key to Groups

1. None of flowers of  with strap-shaped corollas that resemble  petals [ligulate flowers 0, ray flowers 0 or rays very short and easily overlooked]; heads discoid, disciform, or radiant

2. Flowers of 2 kinds, in same or different heads

3. Heads radiantcorollas of outer flowers [bisexual or sterile] conspicuously expanded, often ±  ..... Group 1

3' Heads disciform [pistillate or sterile flowers and  or staminate flowers] or unisexualcorollas of pistillate or sterile flowers inconspicuous or 0 ..... Group 2

2' Flowers of 1 kind [disk flowers] – heads discoid

4. Receptacle bearing scale-like bracts [paleae] that generally individually subtend disk flowers or bearing hair-like bristles or tooth-like to membranous or bristle-like scales among flowers

5. Receptacle paleate or bearing tooth-like to membranous scales ..... Group 3

5' Receptacle bristly or bearing long, bristle-like scales (free or fused at base) ..... Group 4

4' Receptacle epaleate or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries (sometimes bearing minute scales or short hairs among flowers)

6. Pappus 0 or only a low crown ..... Group 5

6' Pappus well developed

7. Pappus of bristles (sometimes with an additional series of shorter bristles or scales) ..... Group 6

7' Pappus of flat, ± membranous scales or stiff, ± needle-like  ..... Group 7

1' Some or all flowers of  with strap-shaped corollas or corolla lips [ligules or rays] that resemble  petalsheads liguliflorous, composed of 2-lipped flowers, or radiate

8. Head composed of 1 kind of flower; central flowers sometimes smaller or less mature but all  and with same kind of corolla

9. Head liguliflorouscorolla 1-lipped, the , petal-like  tipped by 5 short  [ligulate flowers]; corolla readily withering; sap milky ..... Group 8

9' Head composed of 2-lipped flowers; outer corolla lip shallowly 3-lobed, , resembling ray of ray flower, inner lip deeply 2-lobed,  or coiled; corolla not readily withering; sap clear ..... Group 9

8' Head radiate, composed of 2 kinds of flowers; outer flowers [ray flowers] pistillate or sterilecorolla  with generally , petal-like lip [ray]; inner flowers [disk flowers]  (staminate) with generally , (4)5-lobed tubular corolla

10. Receptacle bearing scale-like bracts [paleae] that generally individually subtend disk flowers (sometimes only a single ring of paleae separate ray and disk flowers)

11. Phyllaries in 1(2) series, each subtending a ray flower ..... Group 10

11' Phyllaries in 2+ series, not all subtending ray flowers ..... Group 11

10' Receptacle epaleate or bearing minute scales or hairs (rarely long bristles or awn-like projections) among flowers

12. Pappus 0 or only a low crown ..... Group 12

12' Pappus well developed on ray or disk fruits (or both)

13. Pappus of flat, ± membranous scales or stiff, ± needle-like  ..... Group 13

13' Pappus of bristles (sometimes with an additional series of shorter bristles or scales)

14. Rays white to pink, blue, or purple ..... Group 14

14' Rays yellow to orange or red ..... Group 15

Group 1: Heads radiantcorollas of outer flowers enlarged, often ± 

1. Phyllaries graduated in 4–8 series

2. Outer flowers fruiting

3. Pappus of bristlesannual, taprooted ..... LESSINGIA {G6,7}

3' Pappus a crown of short scales herb with  ..... Tanacetum bipinnatum

2' Outer flowers sterile

4. Distal phyllary margin expanded as a spiny-toothed, , or irregularly toothed appendage ..... CENTAUREA {G2,4}

4' Distal phyllary margin  or minutely spiny-toothed,  smoothly to ± flattened spine at tip ..... Volutaria muricata

1' Phyllaries ± equal or weakly graduated in 1–3 series

5. Fruit 10–15 mm ..... PALAFOXIA {G7}

5' Fruit 2–9 mm

6. Phyllary margin thin, ± scarious, brown to purple ..... HYMENOTHRIX {G7}

6' Phyllary margin not or scarcely scarious, variously colored

7. Leaves  ..... Arnica discoidea

7' Leaves 

8. Pappus scales  or  entire to ± deeply 1–2-pinnately lobed ..... CHAENACTIS {G7}

8' Pappus scales dissected into bristles sharply  or with a few short, sharp  ..... TRICHOPTILIUM {G6,7}

Group 2: Heads disciform or unisexual; flowers of 2 kinds or of 1 unisexual kind; corollas of pistillate or sterile flowers inconspicuous

1. Pistillate and staminate flowers in different heads

2. Pistillate and staminate heads on same plant [monoecious]

3. Subshrub or shrub (to small tree) ..... AMBROSIA (2)

3' Herb

4. Stem armed with 3-branched spines ..... Xanthium spinosum

4' Stem unarmed

5. Staminate heads well-spaced in long terminal inflorescencebur 2–10 mm ..... AMBROSIA (2)

5' Staminate heads congested; bur 10–30+ mm ..... Xanthium strumarium

2' Pistillate and staminate heads on different plants [dioecious]

6. Shrub or  herb with sticky leaves, not woolly ..... BACCHARIS {G6}

6' Herb, sometimes , not sticky; plant generally ± woolly

7. Stem from   withered at flower; cauline leaves long, all except distal-most ± equal ..... ANAPHALIS (2) {G6}

7' Stem from persistent   or thick, often branched cauline leaves generally ± reduced, at least distal-most short, 1–3 cm ..... ANTENNARIA {G6}

1' Pistillate or sterile flowers in same  as staminate or  flowers

8. Outer flowers without corollasheads not embedded in woolly hairs

9. Heads solitary; plant low, stems often  or 

10. Head on slender ± leafless ; outer fruits stalked, not spine-tipped ..... COTULA

10' Head  near stem base or at branch tips, ± enveloped by sheathing bases of  or  subtending leaves, overtopped by branches; fruit sessile, spine-tipped ..... SOLIVA

9' Heads in raceme- or panicle-like clusters

11. Annualfruit smooth or warty, generally winged, glabrous or hairy ..... DICORIA

11' Subshrub or shrubfruit long-soft-hairy, not winged ..... Euphrosyne acerosa

8' Outer flowers with (sometimes narrowly cylindric) corollasheads sometimes embedded in woolly hairs

12. Outer flowers sterile not very small, not embedded in woolly hairs

13. Cauline leaves generally bladeless, sheathing;  leaves from creeping , often appearing after flower stem, long-petioled, palmately lobed ..... PETASITES {G14}

13' Cauline leaves with blades, sometimes reduced distally on stem, not sheathing;  leaves 0 or from taproot, appearing before flower stem,  or petioled,  to 1–2-pinnately lobed

14. Fertile flowers 1–2 per  ..... CRUPINA {G3}

14' Fertile flowers many per 

15' Leaf not spiny

16. Pappus of  with  barbs; phyllaries in 2 series, unarmed ..... BIDENS {G3,11}

16' Pappus 0 or of smooth or minutely rough bristles or narrow scalesphyllaries graduated in 5+ series, often  or spine-tipped

17. Distal phyllary margin expanded as a spiny-margined, , or irregularly toothed appendage ..... CENTAUREA {G1,4}

17' Distal phyllary margin  smoothly to ± flattened spine at tip ..... Volutaria canariensis

12' Outer flowers pistillate [corolla often narrowly cylindric]; heads sometimes very small, embedded in woolly hairs

18. Phyllaries (or outermost bracts of head) papery, membranous,+ or scarious, sometimes green only in proximal 1/2 or in narrow, central band; heads often embedded in woolly hairs

19. Phyllaries 0 or 1–6, not overlapping, < flowers; outer receptacle paleate; some or all pistillate flowers individually subtended by paleae (which often resemble phyllaries)

20. Disk flowers pappus generally of 13–28+ bristles, ± ; inner pistillate flowers with pappus

21. Receptacle ± , height 5–15 × diam; most pistillate paleae open to folded around pistillate flowers, but not enclosing them,  or bristle-tipped; innermost paleae  or  in fruit; outer fruit ± = inner ..... FILAGO

21' Receptacle mushroom-shaped to obovoid, length 0.4–15 × width; most pistillate paleae ± enclosing pistillate flowers,  to ; innermost paleae  in fruit; outer fruit > inner ..... LOGFIA

20' Disk flowers staminatepappus 0 or 1–12 bristlespistillate flower pappus 0

22. Paleae subtending disk flowers (disk paleae) enlarged, rigid, ± , very different from scales subtending pistillate flowers (pistillate paleae)

23. Disk  tips strongly incurved to hooked inward,  or abruptly pointed, often spine-like; pistillate paleae closed, strongly 3-veined or middle vein obscure, tips generally strongly scarious-winged; receptacle not bristly, generally widest at tip ..... ANCISTROCARPHUS

23' Disk  tips  or , ± flat to folded, not spine-like, pistillate paleae openconcaveveins obscure, tips not or barely scarious-winged; receptacle bristly, widest at base ..... HESPEREVAX

22' Disk paleae 0 or scales ± gradually reducedscarious

24. Leaves generally paleae net-veined, inner edge with scarious  that is hidden in pappus 0 ..... PSILOCARPHUS

24' Leaves  or seeming paleae parallel-veined, scarious  visible in pappus 0 or generally of 1–12 bristles

25. Phyllaries 4–6, equal, scarious, obovate, rounded, abruptly different from paleaestyle on inner edge of fruitreceptacle length ± 1–2 × width ..... MICROPUS

25' Phyllaries 0 or 1–4, unequal, vestigial or ± like paleaestyle ± at fruit tip; receptacle length ± 3–8 × width ..... STYLOCLINE

19' Phyllaries generally many, overlapping, inner often >= flowers; receptacle epaleate; pistillate flowers not subtended by bracts

26. Pappus 0 or a minute crown ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G5}

26' Pappus of bristles

27. Herbage short-appressed-hairy, glandular, or silky; distal 1/2 of outer phyllaries leathery, scarious margin 0 or narrow ..... PLUCHEA (2)

27' Herbage ± long-hairy (leaf generally densely woolly abaxially); phyllaries thin, membranousmargin scarious distal to middle or throughout, generally wide

28. Shrub or subshrubstem slender, much-branched ..... PLECOSTACHYS

28' Herb (if subshrubstem  or ascending)

29. Plant with creeping  ..... ANAPHALIS (2) {G6}

29' Plant taprooted, fibrous-rooted (sometimes from leafy stolons), or with 

30. Heads generally in tight groups in generally spike- or narrow, panicle-like cluster (reduced to terminal cluster in small plants); pappus bristles fused at base, falling in ring ..... GAMOCHAETA

30' Heads in  or terminal head-like clusters or in ± open, flat-topped to panicle-like clusters; pappus bristles free or ± fused at base and falling in groups

31. Heads in densehemispheric to ± spheric terminal cluster closely subtended by involucre-like ring of leafy bracts, sometimes also in head-like  clusters ..... EUCHITON

31' Heads in  clusters or terminal clusters, not closely subtended by involucre-like cluster of leafy bracts

32. Annual, 1–30 cm, low-growing; stems generally  or  clusters ±  or terminal; drying mud, shorelines, other moist habitats ..... GNAPHALIUM

32' Annual to  herb, 15–200 cm; stems generally  or  clusters generally terminal to stalked, often branched; generally dry habitats ..... PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM

18' Phyllaries generally green (± purple) throughout, sometimes scarious-margined or inner scarious throughout; heads generally not embedded in woolly hairs

33. Pappus well developed

34. Pappus of flattened scales or  

35. Leaves generally  throughout (occasionally distal-most alternate) ..... LASTHENIA {G12,13}

35' Leaves mostly , sometimes very crowded

36. Plant dotted with  resin glandsfruit 3–4-angled ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

36' Plant densely woolly; fruit 

37. Leaves pappus scales 2; plant densely tufted; GB ..... EATONELLA {G13}

37' Leaves generally wavy-dentate or shallowly lobed; pappus scales 2–7; plant not densely tufted; s SnJV ..... Monolopia congdonii {G12,13}

34' Pappus of bristles

38. Main phyllaries in 1 series, equal ..... SENECIO {G6,15}

38' Main phyllaries in 2+ series

39. Subshrub or shrub

40. Stems ± leafless; receptacle paleatepappus bristles  ..... BEBBIA

40' Stems evidently leafy; receptacle epaleate; pappus bristles ± smooth to 

41. Corolla yellow or becoming ± red-purple; leaves generally ± toothed; pistillate flowers 5–18 ..... HAZARDIA

41' Corolla pink to deep rose; leaves pistillate flowers many ..... Pluchea sericea

39' Annual or  herb

42. Stem thread-like; pistillate flowers 1–5 ..... PENTACHAETA (3) {G12,14,15}

42' Stem stouter; pistillate flowers several to many

43. Pappus bristles 1–2;  palmately lobed or toothed ..... Perityle emoryi (2) {G12,13,14}

43' Pappus bristles generally many;   to pinnately lobed

44. Head ± flat, button-like ..... ERIGERON (2) {G6,14,15}

44' Head generally , bell-shaped, or ± obconic

45. Disk flower corolla purple; herbage strongly scented; anther bases short-tailed ..... PLUCHEA (2)

45' Disk flower corolla cream or yellow; herbage not strongly scented; anther bases not tailed

46' Disk corolla 3–5 mm

47. Leaf not clasping, , toothed, or shallowly few-lobed ..... ERIGERON (2) {G6,14,15}

47' Leaf clasping, regularly  or spreading-lobed ..... LAENNECIA

33' Pappus 0 or reduced to a minute crown

48. Phyllary margins widely scarious or transparent

49. Delicate annualpistillate corollas thread-like ..... PENTACHAETA (3) {G12,14,15}

49' Perennial herb or stout annualpistillate corollas short, wider than thread-like

50. Heads in spikesracemes, or  ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G5}

50' Heads 1 or few to many in ± flat-topped clusters

51. Involucre generally 3–5 mm diam, phyllaries generally 12–20; pappus 0 ..... SPHAEROMERIA

51' Involucre 5–22 mm diam, phyllaries generally 30–60; pappus crown-like, 0.1–0.5+ mm ..... TANACETUM {G12}

48' Phyllary margins generally not scarious or transparent

52. Ovary of disk flower much reducedstyle tip  or tack-shaped

53. Leaf  to widely triangular, generally ±  or proximal cauline, green adaxially, white abaxially; inflorescence opencorolla white; fruit bearing stalked glands ..... ADENOCAULON

53' Leaf  to (ob)ovate or ± round,  and cauline or all cauline, faces ± alike, generally green to gray on 1 or both faces; inflorescence ± densecorolla ± pale yellow, yellow-white, or ± pink; fruit not glandular

54. Anthers fused ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G5}

54' Anthers ± free or only weakly fused

55. Annual 1–2-pinnately divided ..... Euphrosyne nevadensis

55' Perennial herb or subshrub generally  ..... IVA

52' Ovary of disk flower well developed; style tip ± branched

56. Leaf wide, palmately lobed or toothed ..... Perityle emoryi (2) {G12,13,14}

56' Leaf  to narrowly oblanceolate,  or pinnately toothed to lobed

57. Plant not glandular, not strongly scented

58. Leaves  ..... Lasthenia microglossa

58' Leaves  ..... PENTACHAETA (3) {G12,14,15}

57' Plant glandular, ± strongly scented

59. Pappus present ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

59' Pappus 0

60. Fruit of pistillate flower  front-to-back ..... HEMIZONELLA {G10}

60' Fruit of pistillate flower  side-to-side or ± 3-angled in ×-section ..... MADIA {G10}

Group 3: Heads discoid; receptacle paleate or bearing tooth-like to membranous scales among flowers

1. Leaf margins spiny

2. Heads many-flowered ..... CARTHAMUS {G4,5}

2' Heads 1-flowered, grouped in spheric 2°  ..... [ECHINOPS] {G5,7}

1' Leaf margins not spiny

3. Pappus of bristles, bristles and small scales, or stout needle-like 

4. Pappus of 

5. Leaf ± , or pinnately compoundleaflets lanceolate to  ..... BIDENS {G2,11}

5' Leaf  or dissected into linear  ..... [THELESPERMA]

4' Pappus of bristles or of bristles and small scales

6. Corolla purple; fruit 1–2 per herb ..... CRUPINA {G2}

6' Corolla yellow; fruit 18–50 per shrub or subshrub

7. Leaf  to narrowly  or triangular, rough-hairy or becoming glabrouscorolla 6–10 mm; SW, D ..... BEBBIA {G2}

7' Leaf  to ± round, corolla ± 2.5 mm; CCo, SCo ..... HELICHRYSUM {G6}

3' Pappus 0 or of thin, membranous scales or narrow, scale-like 

8. Ovary and fruit strongly flattened, long-ciliate

9. Shrub ..... Encelia frutescens

9' Perennial herb, sticky-glandular ..... Geraea viscida

8' Ovary and fruit ± thick, not 

10. Annual; all or inner phyllaries  to long, needle-like tips ..... Chaenactis carphoclinia

10' Biennial to shrubphyllaries  to  or 

11. Leaf ±  many, small ..... [SANTOLINA]

11' Leaf flat,  to few-lobed

12. Leaf deeply and coarsely pinnately 3–7-lobed, abaxially gray-green-canescent ..... Artemisia palmeri

12' Leaf  or toothed, abaxially glabrous to short-hairy or ± glandular, green

13. Shrub ±  or narrowly oblanceolate ..... EASTWOODIA

13' Perennial herb  to widely  or triangular

14. Receptacle strongly conic or columnar; corolla dark brown-purple ..... Rudbeckia occidentalis

14' Receptacle flat to convexcorolla yellow or orange ..... Wyethia invenusta

Group 4: Heads discoid; receptacle bristly or bearing long, bristle-like scales (free or ± fused at base)

1. Leaves not spiny

2. Phyllaries spine-tipped

3. Phyllary tip-spines hooked ..... ARCTIUM

3' Phyllary tip-spines not hooked

4. Phyllary tip  with spines or slender teeth ..... CENTAUREA (2) {G1,2}

4' Phyllary tip  or minutely spiny-toothed,  to spine ..... VOLUTARIA

2' Phyllaries not spine-tipped

5. Phyllary tips (at least inner) ± prominently expanded, ±  with short spines or irregular teeth ..... CENTAUREA (2) {G1,2}

5' Phyllary tips not expanded or 

6. Proximal leaves  to  or oblanceolate, often lobed or divided; attachment  of fruit lateral ..... ACROPTILON

6' Proximal leaves  to triangular, sharply ; attachment  of fruit  ..... SAUSSUREA {G6}

1' Leaves spiny or spiny-toothed

7. Corolla yellow to orange-red

8. Pappus of many, unequal, narrow scales in several series (sometimes 0), generally 0 on outer fruits; flowers all fertilefruit 4-angled ..... CARTHAMUS {G3,5}

8' Pappus of 20 stiff bristles or  in 2 series, on all fruits; outer flowers sterile [corolla 3-lobed; ovary vestigial]; fruit , 20-ribbed ..... Centaurea benedicta {G2}

7' Corolla white to blue, red, or purple

9. Pappus of long-plumose bristles

10. Largest leaves toothed to deeply lobed;  body 1–6 cm diam; receptacle generally not fleshyphyllaries  to  ..... CIRSIUM

10' Largest leaves often ± compound body 4–15 cm diam; receptacle fleshyphyllaries  ..... CYNARA

9' Pappus of ± rough or  bristles or slender scales

11. Stem spiny-winged ..... CARDUUS

11' Stem not spiny-winged

12. Leaf not blotched along veinsheads not long-peduncled; pappus of many, unequal, narrow scales in several series ..... [Carthamus leucocaulos]

12' Leaf white-blotched along veinsheads long-peduncled; pappus of many long bristlesdeciduous in a ring ..... SILYBUM

Group 5: Heads discoid; receptacle epaleate (or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries), not bristly; pappus 0 or reduced to crown

1. Flowers 1–7 per 

2. Leaves coarsely 1–2-pinnately lobed, spiny-margined – heads 1-flowered, grouped in spheric 2°  ..... [ECHINOPS] {G3,7}

2' Leaves  or toothed

3. Shrubleaves sometimes forming spines

4. Heads in raceme- or panicle-like cluster; 1° leaves soft,  or distally (2)3(5)-toothed ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G2}

4' Heads in ± tight head-like cluster; 1° leaves ± persistent as spines

5. Heads 1-flowered, clustered in 2° headsphyllaries ± 15 in several overlapping series ..... HECASTOCLEIS {G7}

5' Heads 5–6-flowered, short-peduncled in terminal clusters; phyllaries 5–6 in 1 series ..... Tetradymia comosa

3' Herbleaves never forming spines

6. Herbage glabrous ..... FLAVERIA {G12}

6' Herbage hairy or glandular

7. Plant densely glandular, soft-hairy to bristly, 5–120 cm ..... Madia glomerata

7' Plant not glandular, soft-spreading-hairy to woolly, 1–15 cm

8. Heads ± ; plant 1–2.5 cm, tufted, ± woolly ..... Eriophyllum mohavense

8' Heads slender-peduncled; plant 2–15 cm, soft-spreading-hairy ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (3) {G6}

1' Flowers generally 8–many per  – heads not in 2° head

9. Leaves with spine-tipped  or teeth ..... CARTHAMUS {G3,4}

9' Leaves not spiny

10. Fruit 

11. Annual

12. Proximal leaves 2–4 × dissected ..... Chaenactis artemisiifolia

12' Proximal leaves  ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (3) {G6}

11' Perennial herb or subshrub

13. Phyllaries in 1 series, weakly fusedleaves long-acuminate ..... PERICOME {G6}

13' Phyllaries in 2–3 series, ± equal, freeleaves not long-acuminate ..... PERITYLE {G6}

10' Fruit not 

14. Leaves 1–2 × pinnately dissected

15. Involucre ovoid to hemispheric, ± enclosing flowers;  ± hemispheric; heads many in spike- to panicle-like cluster ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G2}

15' Involucre shallowly cup-like or disk-like;  conic to sphericheads 1–4 in cyme-like cluster

16. Mature  sphericherbage strongly pungent-scented; proximal portion of corolla tube sac-like, enclosing top of ovary ..... ONCOSIPHON

16' Mature  ovoidherbage sweetly scented; proximal portion of corolla tube not enclosing top of ovary ..... MATRICARIA

14' Leaves  or toothed to shallowly few-lobed

17. Shrub, strongly scented ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G2}

17' Herb, not or weakly scented

18. Corolla pink to lavender ..... Lessingia arachnoidea

18' Corolla yellow to ± red, red-brown or purple

19. Plant 50–160 cm – heads spheric, many-flowered, long-peduncled, solitary or in open clusters ..... Helenium puberulum

19' Plant 1–15 cm

20. Plant densely woolly; heads ±  in leafy clusters at branch tips ..... Eriophyllum pringlei

20' Plant soft-spreading-hairy; heads slender-peduncled ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (3) {G6}

Group 6: Heads discoid; receptacle epaleate (or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries), not bristly; pappus of bristles

1. Leaves and phyllaries dotted or streaked with embedded, translucent oil glands, otherwise glabrous; plant strongly pungent-scented ..... POROPHYLLUM

1' Leaves and phyllaries without embedded, translucent oil glands (sometimes stalked- or sessile-glandular, or resin-gland-dotted); plant scented or not

2. Shrub or subshrub (if  herbpappus of 1–2 bristles + crown of scales)

3. Corolla white or cream to dull purple or ± green

4. Ovaries very reducedsterilestyle  ..... BACCHARIS {G2}

4' Ovaries forming fruitsstyle often 

5. Fruit 10-ribbed ..... BRICKELLIA (2)

5' Fruit 5-ribbed

6. Leaf , narrowly  ..... Ericameria albida

6' Leaf  or petioled,  diamond-shaped to  or triangular, generally toothed

7. Petiole >>  pappus of bristles and short scales ..... PLEUROCORONIS {G7}

7' Petiole 0 or generally <= pappus of bristles only

8. Perennial herb or subshrubleaves  throughout or distal  ..... AGERATINA (2)

8' Shrub – rigidly branched; leaves spiny-toothed,  throughout ..... Hazardia brickellioides

3' Corolla yellow to orange

9. Pappus bristles 1–2

10. Leaf  3–12 cm,  1.5–5 cm; phyllaries in 1 series, weakly fused ..... PERICOME (2) {G5}

10' Leaf  generally < 2.5 cm,  <= 0.6 cm; phyllaries in 2–3 equal seriesfree ..... PERITYLE {G5}

9' Pappus bristles 18–many

11. Involucre hemispheric to ± sphericphyllaries  or widely  ..... Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus {G7}

11' Involucre generally  to bell-shaped or obconic (hemispheric); phyllaries  to narrowly 

12. Phyllaries in 1–2 series, ± equal

13. Phyllaries 9–18; plant glabrous, resinous-glandular; flowers 12–21 ..... PEUCEPHYLLUM

13' Phyllaries 4–6; plant ± woolly; flowers 4–8 ..... TETRADYMIA

12' Phyllaries graduated in several series, unequal

14. Leaves (at least distal) scale-like

15. Heads in panicle-like clusters; fruit ± glabrous ..... Lepidospartum squamatum

15' Heads solitary; fruit appressed-hairy ..... Leucosyris carnosa

14' Leaves  to , (ob)ovate, or ± round

16. Leaves toothed

17. Corolla throat expanded gradually above tube ..... HAZARDIA {G15}

17' Corolla throat expanded abruptly above tube ..... ISOCOMA (2)

16' Leaves 

18. Phyllaries in 5 ± distinct vertical ranks

19. Young stem densely hairs often tightly matted ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

19' Young stem glabrous or 

20. Leaves glandless or glands, if present, not in deep, round pits ..... CHRYSOTHAMNUS (2)

20' Leaves gland-dotted, glands in deep, round pits ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

18' Phyllaries not in distinct vertical ranks

21. Stem ± 

22. Phyllary tips thin, papery,  to ± , creamy white; corolla ± 2.5 mm ..... HELICHRYSUM {G3}

22' Phyllary margins thick, generally  or stiffly , generally green; corolla 5–12.5 mm

23. Phyllaries  ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

23' Phyllaries  to 

24. Stem loosely pappus 3–5 mm ..... Isocoma menziesii

24' Stem closely  except glabrous ribspappus 8–11 mm ..... Lepidospartum latisquamum

21' Stem glabrous or ± hairy but not 

25. Corolla throat expanded abruptly above tube ..... ISOCOMA (2)

25' Corolla throat expanded gradually above tube

26. Leaves gland-dotted in deep, round pits ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

26' Leaves glandless or glands, if present, not in deep, round pits

27. Involucre 5–10 mm ..... CHRYSOTHAMNUS (2)

27' Involucre 10–17.5 mm

28. Leaves 30–85 mm, ± fruit glabrous; s W&I, n DMtns ..... CUNICULOTINUS

28' Leaves 5–15 mm, fruit appressed-hairy; s KR, n NCoRH ..... Ericameria ophitidis

2' Herb

29. Corollas white to maroon or purple

30. Leaves and phyllaries spiny ..... ONOPORDUM

30' Leaves and phyllaries not spiny

31. Pappus bristles 2–6

32. Leaves  to , toothed;  widely bell-shaped to hemispheric; wet places, GV, SCo ..... TRICHOCORONIS

32' Leaves , generally   to narrowly bell-shaped

33. Corolla 5–6 mm; DSon ..... MALPERIA {G7}

33' Corolla 2–3 mm; NCoR, SNF, GV, CW ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (2) {G5}

31' Pappus bristles generally >> 6

34. Phyllaries ± equal, in 1–2 series

35. Flowers 2(3); annualpappus bristles  ..... DIMERESIA

35' Flowers 10–many;  herbpappus bristles minutely 

36. Abaxial  face glabrous or glandular to short-bristly ..... AGERATINA (2)

36' Abaxial  face white-tomentose ..... LUINA

34' Phyllaries unequal, graduated in several series

37. Annual; outer corollas often , ± ray-like ..... LESSINGIA (2) {G1}

37' Perennial herbcorollas all 

38. Herbage glabrous, sticky ..... Baccharis glutinosa

38' Herbage  to 

39. Leaves  3–9 mm; flowers unisexual – plants dioecious ..... ANTENNARIA (2)

39' Leaves sharply toothed;  10–15 mm; flowers 

40. Corollas cream,  ± style branches long, club-shaped ..... BRICKELLIA (2)

40' Corollas white to generally ± purple,  style branches short,  ..... SAUSSUREA {G4}

29' Corollas yellow to orange or red

41. Phyllaries in 2–several series, unequal, often strongly graduated

42. Phyllaries thin-membranous, white to pink or red

43. Stem from   withered at flower; cauline leaves long, all except distal-most ± equal ..... ANAPHALIS {G2}

43' Stem from persistent   or thick, often branched cauline leaves generally ± reduced, at least distal-most short, 1–3 cm ..... ANTENNARIA {G2}

42' Phyllaries not thin-membranous, not white

44. Plant low, mounded, densely gray-woolly, strongly scented; leaves often wider than long; phyllaries in 2 series, outer phyllaries wide, tips  ..... PSATHYROTES (2)

44' Plant  to , generally not densely woolly, scented or not; leaves generally longer than wide; phyllaries in 3–several series

45. Pappus bristles flat, readily deciduous gummy ..... GRINDELIA {G7,13,15}

45' Pappus bristles ± , ± persistent generally not gummy

46. Annual

47. Outer-flower corollas ± , often enlarged, ± ray-like ..... LESSINGIA (2) {G1}

47' Outer-flower corollas 

48. Plant 10–50 cm; phyllaries generally in 3–5 series ..... Dieteria canescens var. shastensis (2)

48' Plant 2–6 cm; phyllaries in 2–3 series ..... Pentachaeta exilis {G5}

46' Perennial herb – outer-flower corollas , not enlarged

49. Phyllary tips 

50. Leaves  to triangular; corollas creamy yellow ..... Brickellia grandiflora

50' Leaves  to ± obovate; corollas bright yellow ..... Dieteria canescens var. shastensis (2)

49' Phyllary tips generally  (lowest sometimes spreading)

51. Leaves  to narrowly ; disk wide, button-like ..... ERIGERON (2) {G2,14,15}

51' Leaves  to ; disk ± narrow

52. Hairs smooth; various habitats ..... EUCEPHALUS {G14}

52' Hairs minutely knobby (at 20×); generally dry streambanks, gravel bars ..... Heterotheca oregona

41' Phyllaries in 1–2 series, ± equal

53. Pappus bristles ± 

54. Leaves all or mostly  ..... RAILLARDELLA {G7,10}

54' Some or all leaves cauline

55. Phyllaries in 2 seriespappus bristles ±  ..... ARNICA (2) {G15}

55' Phyllaries or phyllary-like paleae in 1 seriespappus bristles 

56. Glandless hairs restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... Anisocarpus scabridus {G7}

56' Glandless hairs not restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... CARLQUISTIA {G7}

53' Pappus bristles smooth or 

57. Cauline leaves  (distal-most sometimes alternate)

58. Pappus bristles many; phyllaries in 2 seriesfree ..... ARNICA (2) {G15}

58' Pappus bristles 1–2; phyllaries in 1 seriesfused at base ..... PERICOME (2) {G5}

57' Cauline leaves 

59. Annual or short-lived  herb with slender taproot

60. Main phyllaries in 1 series, outer, if present, << inner ..... SENECIO (2) {G2,15}

60' Main phyllaries in 1–2 series, ± equal

61. Leaf thread-like to  ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (2) {G5}

61' Leaf oblanceolate to  or wider

62. Pappus bristles ± freeheads short-peduncled; leaves  or blunt-toothed ..... PSATHYROTES (2)

62' Pappus bristles fused at base in 5 groups; heads long-peduncled; leaves sharply toothed or lobed ..... TRICHOPTILIUM {G1}

59' Perennial herb, often with  or 

63. Leaves palmately veined and lobed

64. Plant ±  ..... CACALIOPSIS

64' Plant a twining vine ..... DELAIREA

63' Leaves pinnately veined (or lateral veins obscure),  to pinnately lobed

65. Pappus double, outer pappus of minute bristles or scales ..... ERIGERON (2) {G2,14,15}

65' Pappus single (double, bristles ± equal)

66. Distal  blades 1.5–4 cm; phyllary tips green or red ..... PACKERA {G15}

66' Distal  blades 6–25 cm; phyllary tips black or green ..... SENECIO (2) {G2,15}

Group 7: Heads discoid; receptacle epaleate (or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries), not bristly; pappus of scales or 

1. Heads ± , sometimes in dense 2° clusters

2. Heads 1-flowered, in dense 2° heads; plant ± spiny

3. Herb, 10–20 dm, stoutleaves large, 1–2-pinnately lobed, spiny-margined; 2° heads spheric ..... [ECHINOPS] {G3,5}

3' Shrub, 4–7 dm; leaves small, spine-tipped, margins weakly spiny; 2° heads not spheric, ± concealed by veiny bracts ..... HECASTOCLEIS {G5}

2' Heads 3–20-flowered, solitary or clustered; plant not spiny

4. Leaf tips generally 3-lobed; pappus not falling in a ring ..... ERIOPHYLLUM {G12,13}

4' Leaf tips pappus falling in a ring ..... OROCHAENACTIS

1' Heads peduncled

5. Phyllaries unequal, graduated in 2–many series, outer << inner

6. Pappus of short scales alternating with longer  or bristles

7. Annualleaves , generally  ..... MALPERIA {G6}

7' Perennial herb or subshrubleaves  to ± diamond-shaped, generally few-toothed ..... PLEUROCORONIS {G6}

6' Pappus of readily deciduous  or narrow, bristle-like scales, or of scales that are ± dissected into bristles

8. Shrubphyllary tips  ..... Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus {G6}

8' Herbphyllary tips often  to 

9. Involucre gummy; pappus  readily deciduous ..... GRINDELIA {G6,13,15}

9' Involucre hairy or glandularpappus scales often ± dissected into bristles ..... LESSINGIA {G1,6}

5' Phyllaries or phyllary-like paleae ± equal (or outer > inner), in 1–3 series

10. Head ± sphericleaves  ..... HELENIUM {G12,13}

10' Head  to hemisphericleaves not 

11. Phyllary margins ± scarious, white to yellow, red, or purple

12. Pappus scales bristle-tipped; corollas cream to white or purple-tinged ..... HYMENOTHRIX {G1,12,13}

12' Pappus scales  to corollas generally yellow

13. Annualpappus scales generally 8 ..... PICRADENIOPSIS

13' Perennial herbpappus scales 12–22 ..... HYMENOPAPPUS

11' Phyllary or phyllary-like  margins not evidently scarious, generally ± green

14. Corollas white to purple

15. Fruit 3–9 mm; pappus  midrib 0; leaves often toothed or lobed ..... CHAENACTIS {G1}

15' Fruit 10–15 mm; pappus  midrib well developed; leaves  ..... PALAFOXIA {G1}

14' Corollas yellow

16. Outer corollas ± , much enlarged, ray-like; pappus scales  or toothed ..... Chaenactis glabriuscula

16' Outer corollas generally , not or only slightly enlarged; pappus scales  or dissected into bristles

17. Annual or short-lived  herb 0

18. Leaf teeth and  blunt;  densely glandularpappus scales  ..... Layia discoidea

18' Leaf teeth and  sharp;  not glandularpappus scales dissected into bristles ..... TRICHOPTILIUM {G1,6}

17' Perennial herb with 

19. Leaves mostly or all  ..... RAILLARDELLA {G6,10}

19' Leaves  and cauline, well distributed on stem

20. Glandless hairs restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... Anisocarpus scabridus {G6}

20' Glandless hairs not restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... CARLQUISTIA {G6}

Group 8: Heads liguliflorous; all flowers of  with petal-like, 5-lobed ligulescorollas generally readily withering; sap generally milky

1. Receptacle with long paleae among flowers

2. Leaves mostly cauline, spiny, thistle-like; paleae wide, individually enclosing and falling with fruits ..... SCOLYMUS

2' Leaves mostly or all , not spiny; paleae narrow, membranous, not enclosing fruits

3. Peduncle bracted; scape branched or unbranched ..... HYPOCHAERIS

3' Peduncle bractless; scape unbranched

4. Pappus bristles not longer on 1 side of fruits, ± minutely phyllary margins not wide and papery ..... AGOSERIS (2)

4' Pappus bristles much longer on 1 side of all fruitsphyllary margins papery, much wider than midrib ..... ANISOCOMA (2)

1' Receptacle epaleate (sometimes bristly or minutely scaly)

5. Pappus 0 (or occasionally low crown in Phalacroseris)

6. Heads solitary; stem leafless ..... PHALACROSERIS

6' Heads few to many in cyme-like or panicle-like inflorescencestem often leafy

7. Outer fruits 10–15 mm, rigidly , individually enfolded by inner phyllaries ..... RHAGADIOLUS

7' Outer fruit 3–5 mm, generally straight (curved), not individually enfolded by phyllaries

8. Leaves mostly corolla white; D ..... ATRICHOSERIS

8' Leaves mostly caulinecorolla yellow; NW, SN, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SW ..... LAPSANA

5' Pappus present

9. Corolla blue

10. Pappus of short scales ..... CICHORIUM

10' Pappus of long bristles ..... LACTUCA (2)

9' Corolla yellow or white to purple

11. Pappus of scales, stiff  (sometimes with shorter bristles), or awn-tipped scales, not  (except Microseris nutans, Microseris sylvatica, inner fruit pappus of Leontodon)

12. Outer fruits often enfolded by phyllariespappus of outer and inner fruits dissimilar

13. Leaves  and cauline thickened below fruit ; inner fruit pappus bristles minutely  ..... HEDYPNOIS

13' Leaves  not or scarcely thickened; inner fruit pappus bristles  ..... LEONTODON (3)

12' Outer fruits generally not enfolded by phyllariespappus of outer and inner fruits ± alike

14. Corolla pink to ± white; stem much-branched – cauline leaves short,  ..... CHAETADELPHA

14' Corolla white to yellow or orange; stem branches 0–few

15. Outer phyllaries long, pappus scales stiff, bristle-like ..... TOLPIS

15' Outer phyllaries <= inner, generally wider than  (if linear, short); pappus scales few to many, bristle-tipped

16. Perennial herb leaves , narrow, long-tapered; heads pappus scales 10–30, narrowly , silvery, bristle-tip not  ..... Nothocalais troximoides

16' Annual or  herb or not; leaves  to lobed; pappus scales 1–many, silvery to ± black, bristle-tip smooth, , or 

17. Annual  glabrous, outer phyllaries not < 1/4 inner; pappus scales 5, , silvery, bristle short, smooth, from evenly notched  tip ..... UROPAPPUS

17' Annual or  herb ± nodding in  glabrous to hairy, outer phyllaries often < 1/4 inner; pappus scales 1–30, variously colored, tip  to unevenly cut, bristle from tip smooth to 

18. Perennial herb with fleshy taproot(s); ligules >> pappus scales 5–30 ..... MICROSERIS (3)

18' Annualligules ± = pappus scales 5 (often < 5 in Microseris douglasii)

19. Head generally strongly nodding in pappus scales generally  to  (if  to bristle); leaves  ..... MICROSERIS (3)

19' Head generally not strongly nodding in pappus scales narrowly , tip notched or irregularly cut; cauline leaves sometimes present ..... STEBBINSOSERIS

11' Pappus of  bristles or of ±  bristles or 

20. Pappus bristles or  

21. Pappus bristles wide at base, scale-like ..... MICROSERIS (3)

21' Pappus of bristle or , slender or thick at base, not scale-like

22. Pappus bristles very unequal

23. Pappus bristles much longer on 1 side of all fruitsphyllary margins papery, much wider than midrib ..... ANISOCOMA (2)

23' Outer fruit pappus of short scales, inner fruit pappus of long and short bristlesphyllary margins not wide and papery ..... LEONTODON (3)

22' Pappus bristles ± equal

24. Leaves  to  or ovate-elliptic, grass-like,  or few-toothed;  2.5–5 cm

25. Perennial herbphyllary series several; fruit beak 0 ..... SCORZONERA

25' Annual or biennialphyllary series 1; fruit beak > body ..... TRAGOPOGON

24' Leaves  to  (or scale-like), larger leaves ± toothed or lobed;  0.5–2 cm

26. Corollas white, cream, pink, or lavender

27. Fruit beaked; corollas white or cream, often rose-tinged ..... RAFINESQUIA

27' Fruit beak 0; corollas lavender, pink, or white ..... STEPHANOMERIA

26' Corollas yellow

28. Leaves in  heads generally 1 on   – outer phyllaries inconspicuous ..... LEONTODON (3)

28' Leaves  and cauline, or basal 0 at flower; heads 1–many, not on  

29. Phyllaries in 2 series, outer wide, free, inner narrow ..... HELMINTHOTHECA

29' Phyllaries in 1 series, wide, bases slightly fused ..... UROSPERMUM

20' Pappus bristles smooth or , stiff or soft

30. Fruit ± 

31. Fruit beaked (beak sometimes short, thick) ..... LACTUCA (2)

31' Fruit beak 0 ..... SONCHUS

30' Fruit not 

32. Stem much-branched

33. Stem thorny; corollas pink or lavender to red-purple (white) ..... PLEIACANTHUS

33' Stem not thorny; corollas yellow or white to light pink

34. Flowers 3–4 per corollas white or light pink; annual, 5–30 cm ..... PRENANTHELLA

34' Flowers 6–60 per corollas white or yellow; biennial or  herb, 10–150 cm

35' Fruit beak 0 ..... HIERACIUM (2)

32' Stem little-branched, not thorny; corolla yellow, white, lavender, or rosy to ± purple

36. Shrub; s ChI (San Clemente Island) ..... MUNZOTHAMNUS

36' Herb

37. Fruit widely  or base ± narrowed, not beaked

38. Some or all pappus bristles falling from fruit – long glandless hairs 0 ..... MALACOTHRIX (2)

38' Pappus bristles persistent

39. Plant long-hairy, especially below; heads few to many; stem generally branched ..... HIERACIUM (2)

39' Plant glabrous or minutely heads solitary on  

40. Annualpappus bristle 5 or fewer ..... Microseris douglasii

40' Perennial herbpappus bristles > 20

41. Pappus bristles ± brown,  ..... Microseris borealis

41' Pappus bristles white, smooth ..... Nothocalais alpestris (2)

37' Fruit  at both ends (or distally), often beaked

42. Pappus bristles deciduous, sometimes a few persistent

43. Fruit not beaked ..... MALACOTHRIX (2)

43' Fruit short-beaked

44. Fruit  to beak margins not hard ..... CALYCOSERIS

44' Fruit abruptly beaked;  margins white, hard ..... GLYPTOPLEURA

42' Pappus bristles persistent

45. Stem branched, leafy (leaves often reduced); beak present or 0 ..... CREPIS

45' Stem unbranched, leafless (except some annual Agoseris)

46. Phyllaries unequal, outer << inner, inner equal; fruit beak long, slender ..... TARAXACUM

46' Phyllaries equal or ± graduated in several seriesfruit beak 0 or short to long, slender to stout

47. Plant generally ± hairy; outer phyllaries generally < inner, often striped ± purple, speckled or not ..... AGOSERIS (2)

47' Plant ± glabrous (or  ciliate); outer phyllaries ± = inner, finely speckled purple – KR, n&c SNH ..... Nothocalais alpestris (2)

Group 9: All flowers of  with 2-lipped corollas

1. Perennial herbcorolla white to pink-purple; SCoR, SW ..... ACOURTIA

1' Shrubcorolla yellow; D ..... TRIXIS

Group 10: Heads radiatephyllaries in 1(2) series, individually subtending ray flowers; receptacle paleate (at least between ray and disk flowers)

1. Phyllary margins ± flat, not clasping or enclosing ray ovaries

2. Pappus 2–4 mm, of  bristles ..... Layia hieracioides

2' Pappus 0 or < 1 mm, of scales or 

3. Leaves woolly; ray corollas thin, deciduousreceptacle center with 1–6 palea-like scales ..... Eriophyllum ambiguum var. paleaceum

3' Leaves scabrous; ray corollas leathery, persistentreceptacle paleate throughout, paleae awn-tipped ..... SANVITALIA

1' Phyllary margins folded, ± clasping or enclosing ray ovaries

4. Mature ray fruit  front-to-back, adaxial face generally ± covered by phyllary margins

5. Disk flowers 1(2); annual 1–20 cm ..... HEMIZONELLA {G2}

5' Disk flowers 3–120+; annual or  herb 2–150 cm

6. Perennial herb, rhizomed; disk corolla white ..... HOLOZONIA

6' Annual; disk corolla yellow (sometimes aging ± red)

7. Pappus of 10  scales, 3–13 mm; fruit 10-ribbed ..... ACHYRACHAENA

7' Pappus 0 or of bristles, or  scales, 0.5–7 mm; fruit not ribbed

8. Ray flowers 5; disk flowers 6, staminatepappus 0 ..... LAGOPHYLLA

8' Ray flowers 3–27; disk flowers 5–125, pappus of (0)1–32 bristles, or scales ..... LAYIA

4' Mature ray fruit  side-to-side or ± 3-angled or round in ×-section, adaxial face covered by phyllary margins or not

9. Disk flower style bristly-puberulent proximal to minutely notched tip ..... BLEPHARIPAPPUS

9' Disk flower style glabrous proximal to  branches

10. Perennial herbleaves all or mostly cauline 0 or proximal, few; disk pappus of narrowly awl-shaped or ± bristle-like, ciliate-plumose scales ..... RAILLARDELLA {G6,7}

10' Annual, leafy-stemmed  herb, or subshrub to shrub; disk pappus 0 or of scales, often not awl-shaped or bristle-like and ciliate-plumose

11. Distal leaves and  bracts generally spine-tipped; disk flowers staminate, most or all subtended by paleae ..... CENTROMADIA

11' Distal leaves and  bracts not spine-tipped; disk flowers  or staminate, outermost to all subtended by paleae

12. Rays yellow, sometimes proximally ± red; ray fruit generally  side-to-side or ± 3-angled in ×-section, abaxially rounded, adaxially ± 2-faced, angle between adaxial faces 15–70°;  bracts not tipped by pit- or tack-gland

13. Disk pappus 0 ..... MADIA {G2}

13' Disk pappus of 5–21 wide to bristle-like scales

14. Perennial herb

15. Anthers yellow to ± brown; ray fruit short-beaked;  bell-shaped, ellipsoid, or spheric ..... ANISOCARPUS

15' Anthers ± dark purple; ray fruit beak 0;  bell-shaped to hemispheric ..... KYHOSIA

14' Annual

16. Anthers ± yellow to ± brown ..... HARMONIA (2)

16' Anthers ± dark purple ..... JENSIA

12' Rays yellow, white, or rose; ray fruit round in ×-section or nearly so (except ± flattened adaxially) or ± 3-angled [abaxially generally ± widely 2-faced, angle between those faces generally 90+°, adaxially generally ± flattened to slightly bulging];  bracts sometimes tipped by pit- or tack-gland

17. Ray fruit ± completely enfolded by a phyllaryrays yellow, sometimes ± red at base

18. Disk pappus of  or  scales ..... HARMONIA (2)

17' Ray fruit generally partly enfolded by a phyllaryadaxial face exposed; rays yellow, white, or rose

19. Annualleaves ± , generally narrowly so; ray corolla lobed (1/4)1/3–3/4+ length,  often  bracts generally tack-gland-tipped (except in Osmadenia, ray lobes widely spreading); disk fruit not strongly ribbed

20. Ray fruit beak 0; tack glands present ..... CALYCADENIA

20' Ray fruit short-beaked; tack glands 0 ..... OSMADENIA

19' Annual or subshrub to shrubleaves  or wider; ray corolla lobed generally 1/10–1/2 length,  ± parallel;  bracts not tack-gland-tipped unless fruits 10-ribbed

21. Ray generally white or yellow, often abaxially red- or purple-veined; ray fruit beak 0 or inconspicuous, straight

22. Paleae restricted to outermost disk flowers; disk flowers ; ray fruit hairy ..... BLEPHARIZONIA

22' Paleae throughout receptacle, subtending all disk flowers; disk flowers staminate; ray fruit glabrous ..... HEMIZONIA

21' Ray yellow, not abaxially purple-veined; ray fruit beak adaxial

23. Annual or subshrub to shrub bracts not pit-gland-tipped; if annualpaleae subtending only outermost disk flowers ..... DEINANDRA

23' Annual bracts pit-gland-tipped; paleae throughout receptacle, subtending all or most disk flowers ..... HOLOCARPHA

Group 11: Heads radiatephyllary series 2 or more, none or only some individually subtending ray flowers; receptacle paleate, generally ± throughout (only between ray and disk flowers in Rigiopappus)

1. Rays white to pink or purple

2. Disk corollas white or pink

3. Leaves finely dissected, aromatic; heads many in flat-topped clusters; rays  to round ..... ACHILLEA

3' Leaves  or toothed, not aromatic; heads solitary or in small rays narrowly  ..... ECLIPTA

2' Disk corollas yellow

4. Leaves  or toothed

5. Leaves , ±  ..... GALINSOGA

5' Leaves  or lance-linear to narrowly oblanceolate ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

4' Leaves pinnately lobed or dissected to compound

6. Phyllaries in 2 very different series [inner ± membranous]

7. Leaves leaflets flat, rays short, inconspicuous ..... Bidens pilosa

7' Leaves 1–3-pinnately dissectedsegments narrowly rays long, conspicuous ..... COSMOS

6' Phyllaries graduated in 2–several series, unequal, margins scarious or transparent

8. Fruit initially hairy, densely  in age ..... LASIOSPERMUM

8' Fruit glabrous

9. Base of corolla narrow ..... ANTHEMIS

9' Base of corolla wide, enclosing fruit tip ..... CHAMAEMELUM

1' Rays yellow to orange (sometimes multi-colored)

10. Paleae flat,  to , not folded around disk ovaries

11. Phyllaries ± alike, in 2+ series

12. Phyllaries graduated in several series, unequal, margins scarious or transparent – pappus crown-like, generally 0.2–0.3 mm ..... [COTA]

12' Phyllaries not strongly graduated, ± equal, margins not scarious or transparent (except inner phyllaries of Rigiopappus)

13. Leaves  to  to pinnately lobed; pappus scales awn-tipped ..... [GAILLARDIA] {G13}

13' Leaves pappus scales stiff,  ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

11' Phyllaries in 2 very different series, outer with leaf-like texture, inner ± membranous

14. Pappus of  with  barbs ..... BIDENS {G2,3}

14' Pappus 0 or of flat scales

15. Leaves  or all ; ray flowers fertile ..... LEPTOSYNE

15' Leaves ; ray flowers sterile ..... COREOPSIS

10' Paleae each folded around a disk flower ovary

16. Ray flowers fruiting [style present, ovary well developed]

17. Annual; disk fruit , winged ..... Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata

17' Perennial herb or subshrub; disk fruit  or 3–4-angled, not winged

18. Leaves mostly ± cauline 0 or few; pappus 0 ..... BALSAMORHIZA

18' Leaves  and caulinepappus of scales or 0

19. Disk corolla ± 5 mm; cauline leaves many ..... PALLENIS

19' Disk corolla 8–12 mm; cauline leaves few ..... WYETHIA

16' Ray flowers sterile [style generally 0, ovary vestigial]

20. Fruit strongly margin ± thin

21. Fruit margin 

22. Subshrub or shrub ..... ENCELIA

22' Annual or  herb (sometimes with woody caudex)

23. Leaves all ± , gray or silvery,  ..... ENCELIOPSIS (2)

23' Leaves mostly cauline, green,  or toothed ..... Geraea canescens

21' Fruit margin not 

24. Leaves all ± , silvery or gray; fruit margin corky ..... ENCELIOPSIS (2)

24' Leaves  and cauline or all cauline, green; fruit margin thin or winged

25. Perennial herbleaves  and cauline ..... HELIANTHELLA

25' Subshrubleaves cauline, some often toothed ..... Verbesina dissita

20' Fruit weakly  or not, margin generally not thin

26. Receptacle widely  to conic or ± spheric; disk corollas yellow-green or dark brown-purple

27. Involucre at early flower 8–16 mm diam; fruit  abaxially – phyllary series unequal, outer >> inner ..... RATIBIDA

27' Involucre at early flower 15–30+ mm diam; fruit not , not  abaxially ..... RUDBECKIA

26' Receptacle generally flat to convex, if conic, disk corollas yellow or yellow-orange

28' Pappus present

29. Herb (subshrub); pappus scales generally readily deciduous ..... HELIANTHUS

29' Subshrub or shrubpappus scales persistent or readily deciduous (if subshrub, pappus persistent)

30. Leaf  or narrowly  to  or triangular, base  or rounded to  or  ..... BAHIOPSIS

30' Leaf  to widely obovate, base , wedge-shaped ..... VIGUIERA

Group 12: Heads radiatereceptacle epaleate; pappus 0 or a low crown

1. Leaves , at least proximally

2. Distal leaves 

3. Phyllaries in 3+ series, widely overlapping;  herbfleshy, coastal ..... JAUMEA

3' Phyllaries in 1–2 series, barely overlapping; annual or  herb, generally not fleshy, coastal or interior

4. Plant white-hairy and sessile-glandular; old ray corolla papery, persistent on fruit when dry; disk flowers staminate ..... Arnica dealbata

4' Plant glabrous or ± hairy; old ray corolla deciduous from fruitdisk flowers generally fruiting

5. Ray flower generally 1 per ; ray < 1 mm ..... FLAVERIA {G5}

5' Ray flowers 4–many; ray generally >> 1 mm

6. Leaf margin without embedded oil glands, base not bristly-ciliate; herbage generally not scented; spring-flowering ..... LASTHENIA (2) {G2,13}

6' Leaf margin with embedded oil glands, base bristly-ciliate; herbage strongly scented; summer/fall-flowering ..... PECTIS {G13,15}

2' Distal leaves 

7. Ray white

8. Ray not red-veined abaxially; e SnFrB, SnGb, SnBr, PR, SNE, D ..... Eriophyllum wallacei (2)

8' Ray red-veined abaxially; SCoRI, TR, SnJt ..... Syntrichopappus lemmonii (2)

7' Ray yellow

9. Ray corolla with small   ray ..... MONOLOPIA (2)

9' Ray corolla without small   ray

10. Leaves mostly or all  ..... LASTHENIA (2) {G2,13}

10' Leaves mostly 

11. Leaves glabrous ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G2,13}

11' Leaves ±  ..... ERIOPHYLLUM (2) {G7,13}

1' Leaves  throughout or in 

12. Ray <= 1 mm

13' Herb

14. Leaf finely dissectedphyllaries unequal, overlapping in several series, scarious-margined ..... TANACETUM (2) {G2}

14' Leaf  to ± lobed; phyllaries ± equal, in 1–3 seriesmargins barely scarious or not (widely scarious in Pentachaeta)

15. Phyllaries in 2–3 seriesleaves  ..... PENTACHAETA (2) {G2,14,15}

15' Phyllaries in 1 seriesproximal leaves often toothed or lobed

16. Plant glabrous or sticky-glandular; fruit 1.5–2 mm ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G2,13}

16' Plant ± woolly; fruit 2.5–3 mm ..... Monolopia congdonii {G2,13}

12' Ray > 1 mm

18. Ray white to purple (sometimes multi-colored)

19. Phyllaries unequal, in 2+ series, generally conspicuously overlapping, generally scarious-margined

20. Subshrub – ray fruit 1–3-winged ..... ARGYRANTHEMUM

20' Herb

21. Leaf 1–3-pinnately dissectedheads few to many in rounded to ± flat-topped clusters

22. Ultimate  segments flat ..... Tanacetum parthenium {G13}

22' Ultimate  segments thread-like

23. Herbage strongly scented; fruit obconic, weakly  or ± round in ×-section, faintly 5-ribbed, glandular between ribs, ribs without embedded resin glands ..... Matricaria chamomilla

23' Herbage not scented; fruit 3-angled, ± , 3–5-ribbed, minutely roughened between ribs, 2–3 ribs distally with embedded resin glands ..... TRIPLEUROSPERMUM

21' Leaf , or pinnately lobed; heads solitary or few in open, cyme-like cluster

24. Perennial herbheads 6–9 cm diam ..... LEUCANTHEMUM

24' Annualheads 2.5–4(5.5) cm diam

25. Outer phyllary margins and tips not scarious; ray adaxially uniformly pale yellow or with darker yellow proximal band, abaxially steely blue; fruit densely woolly ..... Arctotheca calendula

25' Outer phyllary margins and tips scarious; ray adaxially and abaxially white (aging pink), proximally yellow; fruit faces glabrous ..... [MAURANTHEMUM]

19' Phyllaries ± equal, in 1–2 series, generally little overlapping, generally not scarious-margined

26. Ray 25–40 mm; coarse  herb or subshrub ..... DIMORPHOTHECA (2)

26' Ray < 10 mm; annual or slender  herb

27. Leaf widely , coarsely  or palmately lobed, abruptly petioled ..... Perityle emoryi {G2,13,14}

27' Leaf  to obovate,  to pinnately lobed (tip sometimes 3-lobed),  or  to 

28. Proximal leaves pinnately lobed ..... BLENNOSPERMA (2)

28' Leaves , toothed, or 3-lobed

29. Perennial herb; moist habitats ..... BELLIS

29' Annual; dry habitats

30. Plant  or becoming glabrous

31. Ray not red-veined abaxially; e SnFrB, SnGb, SnBr, PR, SNE, D ..... Eriophyllum wallacei (2)

31' Ray red-veined abaxially; SCoRI, TR, SnJt ..... Syntrichopappus lemmonii (2)

30' Plant short-hairy

32. Plant tufted or generally  to ; D ..... MONOPTILON {G13,14}

32' Plant ± ; CW ..... PENTACHAETA (2) {G2,14,15}

18' Ray yellow to orange (occasionally multi-colored)

33. Fruit drupeshrub ..... CHRYSANTHEMOIDES

33' Fruit ; generally herb or subshrub (except Venegasia)

34. Phyllaries unequal, overlapping in several series

35. Phyllary margins conspicuously scarious

36. Plant sticky-glandular ..... HETERANTHEMIS {G13}

36' Plant not glandular

37. Heads solitary or in open, leafy ; outer fruits 3-angled ..... GLEBIONIS

37' Heads in dense, flat-topped clusters; fruits  to obconic ..... TANACETUM (2) {G2}

35' Phyllary margins not or barely scarious

38. Leaf  to obovate, pinnately lobed,  at least below; phyllaries narrow,  or tips  or  ..... ARCTOTHECA

38' Leaf widely  to coarsely toothed, phyllaries wide, outer  or  ..... VENEGASIA

34' Phyllaries ± equal (or outer longer), in 1–3 series, slightly overlapping or not

39. Ray fruit prickly, knobby, , or ridged on back; phyllary margins generally narrowly scarious

40. Leaves glabrous or sparsely  generally 5–9 mm ..... BLENNOSPERMA (2)

40' Leaves  and/or glandular 7–20 mm

41. Ray fruit strongly curved [crescent-shaped or almost loop-like]; disk flowers staminate ..... CALENDULA

41' Ray fruit 3-angled, not curved; disk flowers fruiting, fruit flat ..... DIMORPHOTHECA (2)

39' Ray fruit generally smooth on back; phyllary margins generally not scarious

42. Head hemispheric to ovoid or ± sphericphyllaries  or  ..... HELENIUM {G7,13}

42' Head  to hemisphericphyllaries  or 

43. Plant green, glabrous to glandular or 

44. Phyllaries in 2–3 series; plant glandular ..... HYMENOTHRIX {G1,7,13}

44' Phyllaries in 1 series; plant not glandular, ± glabrous ..... Blennosperma nanum

43' Plant ± gray-tomentose

45. Rays when dry persistent, papery,  ..... BAILEYA

45' Rays when dry withering, deciduous

46. Ray corolla with small   ray ..... MONOLOPIA (2)

46' Ray corolla without small   ray

47. Annual herb, or subshrubfruit 4(5)-angled or outer fruits  ..... ERIOPHYLLUM (2) {G7,13}

47' Annualfruit ±  ..... PSEUDOBAHIA

Group 13: Heads radiatereceptacle epaleate; pappus of scales or 

1. Leaves and phyllaries dotted or streaked with embedded, translucent oil glands – herbage strongly scented

2. Ray pale pink to bright pink-purple ..... NICOLLETIA {G14}

2' Ray yellow to red

3. Phyllaries in 1 series

4. Phyllaries free, falling with ray fruits; disk pappus generally of bristles ..... PECTIS {G12,15}

4' Phyllaries fusedpersistent; disk pappus of scales ..... TAGETES

3' Phyllaries in ± 2 series – pappus scales ± divided into 5–10 bristles

5. Annual 1–5(10) mm ..... [DYSSODIA]

5' Subshrubs 2–15 cm

6. Leaf toothed or divided into ± flat segments 10–18 mm ..... ADENOPHYLLUM {G15}

6' Leaf divided into stiff, needle-like segments 5–6 mm ..... THYMOPHYLLA

1' Leaves and phyllaries without embedded oil glands (sometimes glandular-hairy or gland-dotted)

7. Ray white to pink or purple (occasionally multi-colored)

8. Biennial or  herb

9. Leaf compoundpappus scales short ..... Tanacetum parthenium {G12}

9' Leaf pappus scales long, bristle-like ..... TOWNSENDIA {G14}

8' Annual

10. Leaf wide, palmately lobed or toothed ..... Perityle emoryi {G2,12,14}

10' Leaf ± narrow,  to fiddle-shaped or pinnately lobed

11. Plant  or short-stiff-hairy

12. Plant generally ; ray corollas 5–12 mm ..... MONOPTILON {G12,14}

12' Plant ; ray corollas < 2 mm ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G11,12}

11' Plant 

13. Ray 1.5–2.5 mm; pappus scales 2 ..... EATONELLA (2) {G2}

13' Ray 3–30 mm; pappus scales 6–16

14. Phyllaries in 3–6+ series; ray (17)20–30 mm ..... ARCTOTIS

14' Phyllaries in 1 series; ray 3–7 mm ..... Eriophyllum lanosum

7' Ray yellow to red, sometimes multi-colored or fading to cream

15. Receptacle with stiff awn-like projections ..... [GAILLARDIA] {G11}

15' Receptacle smooth or pitted and/or minutely hairy, without stiff awn-like projections

16. Phyllaries in several series, strongly graduated

17. Leaf abaxially stem creeping or  to  ..... ARCTOTHECA

17' Leaf glabrous to short-hairy; stem  or  (rarely decumbent)

18. Phyllary tips  to  gummy – pappus of 2–6 slender deciduous  ..... GRINDELIA {G6,7,15}

18' Phyllary tips ±  not or barely gummy

19. Annualfruit winged; leaves toothed or lobed ..... HETERANTHEMIS {G12}

19' Perennial herb to shrubfruit not winged; leaves 

20. Body of  ± sphericdisk flowers 30–80 ..... Acamptopappus shockleyi {G15}

20' Body of  narrower than length; disk flowers 1–13

21. Leaf  to obovate; disk pappus scales twisted, bristle-like ..... AMPHIPAPPUS {G15}

21' Leaf ; disk pappus scales straight, wide, flat ..... GUTIERREZIA

16' Phyllaries in 1–3(4) series, generally ± equal (sometimes outer longer), not strongly graduated

22. Leaves 

23. Head 3.5–8 cm diam; ray base generally dark-spotted; fruit hairs concealing pappus; sap milky ..... GAZANIA

23' Head generally < 3 cm diam; ray base not dark-spotted; fruit hairs not concealing pappus; sap clear

24. Plant ± densely glandular-hairy ..... Hulsea vestita

24' Plant not glandular-hairy, often dotted with  resin glands ..... TETRANEURIS

22' Leaves  and cauline or all cauline

25. Leaves generally  throughout (occasionally distal-most alternate) ..... LASTHENIA {G2,12}

25' Leaves generally  (sometimes proximally opposite)

26. Old ray corolla papery, persistent on fruit when dry ..... PSILOSTROPHE

26' Old ray corolla withering, deciduous from fruit

27. Pappus of rigid,  leaves  ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G11,12}

27' Pappus of ± thin scalesleaves various,  to lobed

28. Phyllaries in 2–3 generally ± equal series, sometimes outer phyllaries longer

29. Leaves mostly or all deeply linear-lobed or 1–3 × dissected

30. Distal stem and involucres stalked-glandular; leaves 1–3 × pinnately dissected ..... HYMENOTHRIX {G1,7,12}

30' Distal stem and involucres not stalked-glandular, glands  or sunken; leaves  or generally 1–2 × dissected into   ..... HYMENOXYS

29' Leaves  to shallowly lobed

31. Pappus scales 4, in 2 unequal pairs; plant glandular-hairy ..... HULSEA

31' Pappus scales 5–8, equal or not; plant generally not glandular

32. Leaf narrowly , or if  wider, base long-decurrent on stem; disk ± sphericphyllaries generally ±  ..... HELENIUM {G7,12}

32' Leaf not narrowly  or ; disk hemisphericphyllaries generally  (or  in age) ..... Hymenoxys hoopesii

28' Phyllaries in 1(2) series

33. Ray < 1 mm

34. Plant dotted with  resin glandsfruit 3–4-angled ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS {G2,12}

34' Plant densely woolly; fruit  ..... Monolopia congdonii {G2,12}

33' Ray 1.5–10+ mm

35. Disk fruit ± annual ..... EATONELLA (2) {G2}

35' Disk fruit (except sometimes outermost) ± , club-shaped, or 3–4-angled; annual to shrub

36. Subshrubleaves 8–25 cm, distinctly petioled; pappus scales 2–6+, unequal or, if equal, scales 2,  ..... CONSTANCEA

36' Annual to shrubleaves <= 8 cm,  or ± winged-petioled; pappus scales 0 or 6–12+, in 1–2 equal or unequal series ..... ERIOPHYLLUM {G7,12}

Group 14: Heads radiaterays white to pink, blue, or purple; receptacle epaleate; pappus of bristles

1. Leaves palmately lobed or 

2. Annualleaves caulinepappus bristle 1; SCo, ChI, PR, D ..... Perityle emoryi {G2,12,13}

2' Perennial herbleaves cauline leaves reduced to sheathing scalespappus bristles many; moist forests, NW, n SNH, nw&n-c CW ..... PETASITES {G2}

1' Leaves  to pinnately lobed

3. Rays inconspicuous, barely surpassing disk or not

4. Phyllaries with 1–3 resin-filled veins that become orange when dry

5. Resin-filled phyllary vein 1 ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

5' Resin-filled phyllary veins generally 3

6. Subshrub; branches often thorny ..... CHLORACANTHA (3)

6' Herb; branches not thorny ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

4' Phyllaries without resin-filled veins that become orange when dry

7. Disk wide, flat; disk flowers many; pappus generally double [outer, inner elements distinct], outer of short bristles or scales ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

7' Disk longer than wide; disk flowers 4–25+; pappus generally single

8. Fruit 1–3 mm, not distally long-tapered; stem branches generally not overtopping main stem ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

8' Fruit 5–6 mm, distally long-tapered; stem branches stiffly , often overtopping main stem ..... TRACYINA {G15}

3' Rays conspicuous, generally much exceeding disk

9. Pappus bristles alternating with well-developed scales – plant with strong, pungent odor ..... NICOLLETIA {G13}

9' Pappus of bristles only or scales very short

10. Pappus bristles <= 15

11. Pappus double, of 1–15 bristles and 5 narrow scales or of 1 plumose-tipped bristle and a low crown ..... MONOPTILON {G12,13}

11' Pappus single, of 3–5 bristles ..... PENTACHAETA {G2,12,15}

10' Pappus bristles generally > 20

12. Bristles distinctly flattened,  to ±  ..... TOWNSENDIA {G13}

12' Bristles ±  or weakly flattened, smooth to 

13. Main phyllaries ± equal in 1–3(4) series

14. Pappus ± 1 mm, bristles fused at base; plant woolly ..... SYNTRICHOPAPPUS {G15}

14' Pappus generally >> 1 mm, bristles free; plant generally not woolly

15. Pappus generally double, outer of short bristles or scales (0), inner of soft bristles; rays generally < 2 mm wide ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

15' Pappus single; rays often > 2 mm wide

16. Annual; main phyllaries equal, in 1 series [often with very short outer phyllaries] ..... Senecio elegans

16' Perennial herb; main phyllaries ± equal, in 2–3(4) series

17. Heads solitary; leaves all or mostly cauline reduced or 0 ..... OREOSTEMMA

17' Heads clustered; leaves  and cauline or all cauline ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

13' Main phyllaries unequal, graduated in 2–several series

18. Shrub or subshrub

19. Phyllary veins resin-filled, orange when dry; plant often thorny ..... CHLORACANTHA (3)

19' Phyllary veins not resin-filled or orange; plant unarmed

20. Ray flowers sterile [style 0, ovary vestigial]; pappus brown or ± red ..... CORETHROGYNE (2)

20' Ray flowers fruiting [style present]; pappus generally ± white

21. Ray flowers 15–40 mm; leaves often sharply toothed

22. Outer phyllaries ± oblanceolate, tips  to , generally  in age; e PR ..... Dieteria canescens var. ziegleri

22' Outer phyllaries  to lance-linear, tips sharply , not  in age; SNE, D ..... XYLORHIZA (2)

21' Ray flowers 5–10 mm; leaves 

23. Slender subshrub, minutely stalked-glandular, or nonglandular and  ..... CHAETOPAPPA (2)

23' Stiff shrubglabrous, sticky-resinous ..... Ericameria gilmanii

18' Herb

24. Ray flowers sterile (style 0, ovary ± vestigial)

25. Disk style branch tips densely tufted with stiff yellow hairspappus brown or ± red ..... CORETHROGYNE (2)

25' Disk style branches without stiff yellow hairspappus ± white

26' Involucre 3–6 mm ..... Leucosyris arida

24' Ray flowers fruiting, style present

27. Pappus double, outer of short bristles or scales, inner of long bristles

28. Resin-filled phyllary veins generally 3; stem often thorny ..... CHLORACANTHA (3)

28' Resin-filled phyllary veins 0–1; stem unarmed

29. Rays narrowly , often very many ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

29' Rays , 1–16

30. Disk corolla white – heads in tight clusters at tips of inflorescence branches ..... SERICOCARPUS (2)

30' Disk corolla yellow

31. Heads in cyme-like cluster ..... EUCEPHALUS {G14}

31' Heads solitary ..... IONACTIS

27' Pappus single, or bristles ± equal if more than 1 series

32. Phyllaries ± herbaceous throughout (or margin scarious to ± white)

33. Leaves 4–12 mm; plant 5–15(20) cm – stems slender, generally branched, very leafy ..... CHAETOPAPPA (2)

33' Leaves generally 30–200 mm; plant often > 20 cm ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

32' Phyllary tips ± herbaceous, bases white to straw-colored

34. Annual to  herb with taprootleaves ±  to toothed or pinnately dissectedteeth sometimes bristle-tipped; phyllary tips often 

35. Heads 3.5–6 cm diam, solitary ..... XYLORHIZA (2)

35' Heads generally < 3 cm diam, often in cyme-like clusters

36. Rays 1.3–4 mm ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

36' Rays 6–20 mm

37. Leaves  to toothed ..... DIETERIA

37' Leaves 1–2-pinnately dissected ..... MACHAERANTHERA

34' Perennial herb with  or leaves  to toothed; phyllary tips generally 

38. Heads in tight clusters at tips of inflorescence branches; disk corolla white ..... SERICOCARPUS (2)

38' Heads in raceme-like or flat-top