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Vascular Plants of California
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Key to Plantaginaceae

View taxon page for Plantaginaceae

 

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Plant generally aquatic, or plants in wet soil or mud

2. Corolla and calyx clearly present; plants in wet soil or mud

3. Stamens 4, staminode 0 ..... BACOPA (2)

3' Stamens 2, staminodes 2 ..... DOPATRIUM (2)

2' Corolla 0; calyx generally 0, except occasionally present as minute rim on ovary; plants aquatic

4. Leaves generally ; ovary superiorstyles 2 ..... CALLITRICHE

4' Leaves in whorls of 6–12; ovary inferiorstyle 1 ..... HIPPURIS

1' Plant generally terrestrial, generally of drier habitats

5. Corolla dry, scarious, translucent, persistent in fruitleaves generally veins generally ± parallel; fruit  ..... PLANTAGO

5' Corolla of petal-like texture, variously colored, but not scarious or translucent, generally not persistent in fruit; leaves basal or basal and cauline, veins generally  or ; fruit generally not circumscissile

6. Leaves generally  (except proximal generally opposite in Antirrhinum, Cymbalaria, Mohavea, Pseudorontium; proximal-most opposite on seedlings in Maurandella), not all basal

7. Corolla base neither spurred nor sac-like, throat open, floor without longitudinal folds, or throat ± closed; fruit generally  or opening by irregular bursting near tip

8. Corolla 40–60 mm, lower lip not swollen, throat open; fruit generally loculicidal ..... DIGITALIS

8' Corolla 8–9 mm, lower lip swollen, ± closing throat; fruit opening by irregular bursting near tip ..... PSEUDORONTIUM

7' Corolla base spurred or sac-like (except Holmgrenanthecorolla throat open, floor with 2 longitudinal folds); fruit generally  by terminal slits or pores (circumscissile)

9. Leaves palmately veined,  to lobed;  5–33 mm

10. Corolla base spurred ..... CYMBALARIA

10' Corolla base not spurred

11. Leaves ± round to ; neither stems or petioles twining; corolla white to pale yellow;  1–4 mm ..... HOLMGRENANTHE

11' Leaves  to sagitate; corolla pink, red, to violet distally; stems or petioles twining; pedicels 12–47 mm ..... MAURANDELLA

9' Leaves not palmately veined, generally entire, generally ±  (or petioles <= 30 mm)

12. Stem twining or 

13. Plant glabrous (except stem base, inflorescence); pedicels twining or U-shaped, or bractlets subtended by twining branchlets, these reduced at distal ; leaves  to  ..... ANTIRRHINUM (2)

13' Plant hairy; pedicels straight; branchlets subtending bracts 0; leaves ovate to hastate or  – fruit circumscissile ..... KICKXIA (2)

12' Stem 

14. Corolla base spurred; plant generally glabrous

15. Flowers yellow, red-violet, purple, or occasionally 2-colored; corolla lower lip >= upper lip ..... LINARIA (2)

15' Flowers blue to violet; corolla lower lip >> upper lip ..... NUTTALLANTHUS (2)

14' Corolla base sac-like; plant generally hairy (at least inflorescence), rarely glabrous throughout

16. Stamens 4, anther sacs 2 per stamen; fruit , dehiscing by 1–2 pores near tip ..... ANTIRRHINUM (2)

16' Stamens 2, anther sacs 1 per stamen; fruit symmetric, dehiscent by irregular slit at tip ..... MOHAVEA

6' Leaves generally opposite, sometimes  or all basal

17. Stamens 2, staminodes 0 or 2

18. Leaves basal, long-petioled; inflorescence  ..... SYNTHYRIS

18' Leaves cauline, sessile to short-petioled; inflorescence not scapose

19. Corolla ± , generally 4-lobed, tube << sepals generally 4(5) ..... VERONICA

19' Corolla 2-lipped, 5-lobed, tube > lobes; sepals generally 5

20. Anther sacs of each stamen separated, parallel; corolla tube 4-angled ..... GRATIOLA

20' Anther sacs of each stamen touching, not parallel; corolla tube  ..... DOPATRIUM (2)

17' Stamens 4, staminode 0 or 1

21. Calyx tube well developed

22. Stamens  in keeled lower central corolla  ..... COLLINSIA

22' Stamens , lower central corolla lobe not keeled ..... TONELLA

21' Calyx segments ± free

23. Corolla spurred at base of tube

24. Stem decumbent; flower 1 in axils ..... KICKXIA (2)

24' Stem erect; inflorescence a terminal 

25. Flowers yellow, red-violet, purple, or occasionally 2-colored; corolla throat swelling obvious, not white-ridged ..... LINARIA (2)

25' Flowers blue; corolla throat swelling ± obscure, white-ridged ..... NUTTALLANTHUS (2)

23' Corolla not spurred, occasionally sac-like at base

26. Staminode 0

27. Leaves in whorls of 3; flowers > 2 cm, bright red ..... GAMBELIA

27' Leaves opposite; flowers < 2 cm, not red

28. Leaves generally narrowly ± ovate to ± round, ± entire; corolla generally white to pink ..... BACOPA (2)

28' Leaves ± , toothed; corolla violet to purple ..... STEMODIA

26' Staminode 1

29. Fertile filament bases glabrous, attached to corolla at different levels ..... PENSTEMON

29' Fertile filament bases densely hairy, attached to corolla at 1 level

30. Subshrub or shrubanthers glabrous; seeds angled ..... KECKIELLA

30' Perennial herb; anthers woolly; seeds winged ..... NOTHOCHELONE

 

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/ [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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