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Vascular Plants of California
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Key to Silene

View taxon page for Silene

(For a list of species in Silene, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Annualbiennialtaproot generally slender

2. Calyx tube clearly 16–30-veined

3. Styles 5; petal limb ±  to 2-lobed; fruit teeth 10; flower pistillate ..... S. latifolia (3)

3' Styles generally 3; petal limb entire to notched; fruit teeth 3; flower 

4. Calyx 8–12 mm; petal appendages 0 ..... S. coniflora

4' Calyx 18–26 mm; petal appendages 2–5 mm ..... S. conoidea

2' Calyx tube clearly 10-veined

5. Pedicelcalyx glabrous

6. Upper leaves  to oblanceolate; upper  generally sticky; calyx not constricted to a narrow tube ..... S. antirrhina

6' Upper leaves oblanceolate to ; upper internodes not sticky; calyx constricted to a narrow tube ..... S. armeria

5' Pedicel, calyx hairy

7. Pedicels 0–5 mm; flowers generally 1 per inflorescence ± 1-sided

8. Calyx densely short-hairy, not glandular; petal limb 5–12 mm, lobed >= 1/2 length; styles ; inflorescence bracts thin, ± translucent ..... S. dichotoma subsp. dichotoma

8' Calyx glandular-hairy especially on veins; petal limb 2–5 mm, entire to notched; styles ; inflorescence bracts thick, opaque ..... S. gallica

7' Some  > 5 mm; some  with 2–3 flowers; inflorescence not 1-sided

9. Petals bright pink; calyx  2–3 mm

9' Petals white, yellow-white, or ± pink; calyx lobes 3–13 mm

11. Calyx tube veins not clearly net-like, lobes generally 3–6 mm,  to ; flowers staminate ..... S. latifolia (3)

11' Calyx tube veins net-like above middle, lobes 6–13 mm, generally long-tapered; flowers bisexual ..... S. noctiflora

1' Perennial herb, from  or  to branched, woody 

12. Corolla bright red

13. Petal lobes 2–4; plants 4–10(15) cm ..... S. serpentinicola

13' Petal lobes 4–6; plants 20–70 cm ..... S. laciniata

14. Cauline leaves widely  to ovate; fruit ovoid ..... subsp. californica

14' Cauline leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate; fruit ±  to ovoid ..... subsp. laciniata

12' Corolla white, ± red, purple, or yellow-white or -green to green

15. Calyx clearly ± inflated (papery in Silene vulgaris)

16. Calyx 12–20 mm, short-hairy, 10- or ± 20-veined, lobes 3–6 mm; fruit ovoid ..... S. latifolia (3)

16' Calyx 7–10 mm, generally glabrous, faintly 10–15-veined, lobes 1–3 mm; fruit ± spheric ..... S. vulgaris

15' Calyx not clearly inflated or papery in fruit

17. Petal claw  to limb; appendages 0

18. Calyx lobes 4–5 mm, slightly < tube; petal 4-lobed, claw ± , short-woolly below middle; s SNH ..... S. aperta

18' Calyx lobes 1–2 mm, << tube; petals entire to slightly notched, claw gradually tapered to limb, glabrous to sparsely short-hairy below middle; KR, s CaRH, c&n SNH ..... S. invisa

17' Petal claw and limb junction generally abrupt, often narrowed; appendages 2–6, 0.5–4 mm

19. Petal limb 2-lobed, sometimes short-toothed near base

20. Basal, lower cauline leaves densely tufted, fleshy, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, generally < 40 mm, < 5 mm wide; flowering stems generally < 30 cm

21. Seeds 2–3 mm; calyx 8–10 mm; petal limb 3–5 mm;  leaves 1–5 mm wide ..... S. grayi (2)

21' Seeds 1–2 mm; calyx 9–15 mm; petal limb 2.5–3.5 mm; basal leaves 1.5–3.5 mm wide

22. Walls between calyx hair cells clear; plant 10–15(20) cm; calyx lobes 2–3 mm; SNH, SNE ..... S. sargentii

22' Walls between calyx hair cells purple; plant 3–10 cm; calyx lobes 1–2 mm; CaRH ..... S. suksdorfii

20' Basal leaves not densely tufted, not fleshy, generally lanceolate to oblanceolate, some > 30 mm, > 5 mm wide; some flowering stems > 30 cm

23. Petals < 10 mm, calyx 5–7 mm; petal appendages < 0.5 mm ..... S. menziesii (2)

23' Petals > 10 mm, calyx 7–20 mm; petal appendages > 1 mm

24. Flowers nodding; stamens, styles much exserted ..... S. bridgesii

24' Flowers  to generally ; stamens, styles ± not exserted

25. Pedicel, calyx , not glandular, rarely glabrous

26. Calyx base  to rounded in fruit; basal leaves, lower internodes glabrous to sparsely puberulent ..... S. douglasii var. douglasii

26' Calyx base narrowed in fruit; basal leaves, lower internodes moderately to densely puberulent, ± finely scabrous or not ..... S. verecunda (2)

25' Pedicel, calyx glandular-puberulent to -hairy

27. Basal leaves mostly > 10 mm wide, oblanceolate, lanceolate, or 

28. Cauline leaves << basal leaves; cauline  pairs < 3; fruit stalk 1–2 mm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent; calyx  veins wider than tube veins; > 1200 m ..... S. nuda

28' Cauline leaves gradually reduced upward; cauline leaf pairs > 4; fruit stalk 3–6 mm, puberulent to woolly; calyx lobe veins ± as wide as tube veins; < 300 m ..... S. scouleri subsp. scouleri

27' Basal, lower cauline leaves 0 or withering (if present, most < 10 mm wide, linear to narrowly oblanceolate)

29. Middle cauline leaves (3)5–10 mm wide; calyx lobe margins membranous ..... S. marmorensis

29' Middle cauline leaves < 6 mm wide; calyx lobe margin generally translucent ..... S. verecunda (2)

19' Petal limb generally 4–8-lobed

30. Calyx 15–40 mm; corolla 20–30 mm

31. Petals pink to rose-red, limbs 14–20 mm; s CaRH ..... S. occidentalis (2)

31' Petals yellow-white, limbs 7–10 mm; SnGb, SnBr, e PR ..... S. parishii

30' Calyx 5–20(25) mm; corolla generally < 20 mm (< 50 mm in Silene occidentalis)

32. Calyx tube generally <= 10 mm

33. Calyx tube , length > width; stamens, styles > petal claws; petal claw short-woolly ..... S. lemmonii

33' Calyx tube bell-shaped or elliptic, length ± = width; stamens, styles = to ± > petal claws; petal claw glabrous or  at base

34. Petals 5–11 mm, limb 2–4-lobed; fruit stalk glabrous; flowers generally  to erect; calyx lobes generally < 2 mm

35. Leaves linear to oblanceolate; internodes 2–3 × > leaves; calyx clearly veined; petal lobes 4, outer generally > inner ..... S. grayi (2)

35' Leaves lanceolate to elliptic; internodes < leaves; calyx faintly veined; petal lobes generally 2 ..... S. menziesii (2)

34' Petals 12–20 mm, limb 4–6(8)-lobed; fruit stalk puberulent; flowers nodding to ± spreading; calyx lobes 2–5 mm ..... S. campanulata

36. Leaves 2–10 mm wide, linear to lanceolate ..... subsp. campanulata

36' Leaves 10–30 mm wide, lanceolate to ± round ..... subsp. glandulosa

32' Calyx tube generally > 10 mm

37. Upper cauline leaves generally overlapping or exceeding pedicels; calyx canescent to soft-white-hairy; petal limb ± = claw, lobes > 10 mm

38. Stems glandular-puberulent above; petal lobes equal or outer < inner, ± linear or lanceolate to broadly oblong, 5–10 mm, appendages 2, linear; stamens included ..... S. hookeri

38' Stems soft-shaggy-hairy or canescent above; petal lobes equal, linear, 15–25 mm, stamens long-exserted.

39. Petal limb white with ± green center or ± pink, appendages 0 ..... S. bolanderi

39' Petal limb salmon-orange, appendages present ..... S. salmonacea

37' Flowers located well above cauline leaves; calyx short-glandular-hairy; petal limb 1/3–1/2 × claw, lobes < 8 mm

40. Fruit stalk 4–7 mm; petal limb 7–17 mm; calyx > 15 mm ..... S. occidentalis (2)

40' Fruit stalk 2–5 mm; petal limb 3–7 mm; calyx generally < 15(18) mm

41. Petal appendages 2, deeply cut or ; petal claw, stamen base ciliate ..... S. bernardina

41' Petal appendages 4–6, entire; petal claw, stamen base glabrous ..... S. oregana

 

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/ [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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