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Vascular Plants of California
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Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: GrindeliaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: GUMPLANT
Habit: [Annual] perennial herb to subshrub from taproot or woody caudex, glabrous or tomentose, often glandular-sticky. Leaf: simple, alternate, generally not fleshy, entire, crenate, serrate, or pinnately lobed, gland-dotted. Inflorescence: heads generally radiate (discoid); involucre obconic to hemispheric, generally gummy; phyllaries in 4--10 graduated series; receptacle flat to convex, +- pitted, epaleate. Ray Flower: 0--60; corolla yellow. Disk Flower: corolla yellow; anther tip lanceolate; style-branch appendages linear to lanceolate, generally >= stigmatic portion. Fruit: cylindric or swollen-obconic, shiny-white to +- brown, smooth or ridged, glabrous; pappus of 1--6 narrow awns (occasionally construed as bristle-like) [25--40 bristles], +- < disk corolla, generally entire, deciduous.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: central and western North America, South America. Etymology: (D.H. Grindel, Latvian botanist, 1776--1836) Note: Variable. Morphologically intermediate plants common where species ranges overlap. Strother & Wetter treated all California species except Grindelia squarrosa and Grindelia fraxinipratensis in Grindelia hirsutula. Grindelia ciliata (Nutt.) Spreng. [Prionopsis ciliata (Nutt.) Nutt.], with pappus of many united bristles (falling as a unit), is an historical waif from northern CCo, northern SCo.
eFlora Treatment Author: Abigail J. Moore
Reference: Strother & Wetter 2006 FNANM 20:424--436
Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal var. serrulata (Rydb.) Steyerm.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Biennial 1--6 dm, decumbent to erect, much-branched throughout. Leaf: 1.5--7 cm; basal leaves generally 0 at flower, distal not much smaller; blade oblong to ovate, sessile or narrowed at base, glabrous, resinous, gray-green, crenate, each tooth with a +- yellow bump near tip. Inflorescence: involucre 10--17 mm diam, bell-shaped, glabrous, resinous; phyllaries in 5--6 series, bases wide, straw-colored, tips green, acuminate, +- round in ×-section, coiled 360°. Ray Flower: 0 or 24--36; ray 8--10 mm. Fruit: 2.3--3 mm, light brown to +- yellow, top truncate; pappus awns 2--3(6). Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Disturbed roadsides, streamsides; Elevation: 700--2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRH, SNH, TR, GB, DMoj; Distribution Outside California: native Wyoming to New Mexico. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep Note: TOXIC, concentrates selenium.
Jepson eFlora Author: Abigail J. Moore
Reference: Strother & Wetter 2006 FNANM 20:424--436
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Botanical illustration including Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata

botanical illustration including Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata

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Citation for this treatment: Abigail J. Moore 2012, Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=7515, accessed on July 22, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 22, 2019.

Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata
click for enlargement
© 2001 Larry Blakely
Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata
click for enlargement
© 2001 Larry Blakely
Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata
click for enlargement
© 2001 Larry Blakely
Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata
click for enlargement
© 2001 Larry Blakely
Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata
click for enlargement
© 2001 Larry Blakely
Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata
click for enlargement
© 2001 Larry Blakely

More photos of Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata:
CaRH, SNH, TR, GB, DMoj
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.