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Vascular Plants of California
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Solanum elaeagnifolium
WHITE HORSE-NETTLE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: SolanaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: NIGHTSHADE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla +- radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2--5-chambered.
Genera In Family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially +- tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia). Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: SolanumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: NIGHTSHADE
Habit: Annual to shrub, vine or not, prickly or not, often glandular. Leaf: alternate to +- opposite, often unequal, entire to deeply pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: panicle or umbel-like, often 1-sided. Flower: calyx +- bell-shaped; corolla +- rotate, white to purple (yellow), lobes generally of different color toward base of midrib, generally without spots at base; anthers free, > filaments, oblong or tapered, opening by 2 pores or short slits near tip, in age often splitting to base; ovary 2-chambered, style 1, generally +- straight, stigma head-like. Fruit: berry, generally spheric, fleshy (or dry, capsule-like). Seed: many, compressed, generally reniform.
Species In Genus: +- 1500 species: worldwide, especially tropical America. Etymology: (Latin: quieting, from narcotic properties) Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Many cultivated for food (including potato, Solanum tuberosum), ornamental; Solanum dimidiatum in California an urban weed. See Lycopersicon for other taxa recently included here.
Unabridged Reference: Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World, pp. 285--333 in M. Nee, D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester & J.P. Jessop (eds.), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Symon 1981 J Adelaide Bot Gard 4:1--367
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb < 10 dm, from rhizome, forming colonies, generally prickly, stellate hairs dense, scale-like, rays fused at base. Leaf: 2--15 cm, oblong, entire to +- lobed, +- yellow. Inflorescence: raceme-like. Flower: calyx 5--8 mm, lobes +- = tube; corolla 20--30 mm wide, purple or blue; anthers 8--10 mm, +- equal. Fruit: 8--15 mm, orange, often persistent. Seed: 2.5--3 mm. Chromosomes: n=12.
Ecology: Common. Dry, disturbed places, fields; Elevation: < 1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA (exc NCo, KR, GB); Distribution Outside California: to South America; native to central United States, northern Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Sep
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael H. Nee
Unabridged Reference: Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World, pp. 285--333 in M. Nee, D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester & J.P. Jessop (eds.), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Symon 1981 J Adelaide Bot Gard 4:1--367
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Botanical illustration including Solanum elaeagnifolium

botanical illustration including Solanum elaeagnifolium

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Citation for this treatment: Michael H. Nee 2012, Solanum elaeagnifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=44852, accessed on November 19, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 19, 2019.

Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2004 James M. Andre
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Solanum elaeagnifolium in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Solanum elaeagnifolium:
CA (exc NCo, KR, GB)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.