Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Smilax californica


Higher Taxonomy
Family: SmilacaceaeView Description 
Common Name: SMILAX FAMILY
Habit: [Perennial herb, shrub] vine, from rhizomes, stolons, or caudices, dioecious. Stem: erect or climbing, generally prickly, scaly below, leafy above. Leaf: simple, opposite or alternate, veins net-like between generally 3 stronger veins; petioles generally with 2+ tendrils near base. Inflorescence: generally umbel [raceme, spike]. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls, free [rarely united], stamens 6, free (as staminodes in pistillate flowers); ovary superior, chambers 2 or 3, style +- 0, stigmas 3, (pistils 0 or reduced, sterile in staminate flowers). Fruit: berry, black, purple, blue, red [orange] (white). Seed: 1--2/chamber.
Genera In Family: 4(12) genera, 375 species: temperate, tropics.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: SmilaxView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: GREENBRIER
Habit: Perennial herb; caudex generally large, tuber-like. Stem: climbing or trailing, woody below or not, often prickly +- throughout. Leaf: alternate, deciduous or persistent; base rounded to sagittate; petiole tendrils generally 2. Inflorescence: umbels or clusters, axillary. Flower: perianth parts white to +- green or +- yellow; ovary chambers generally 3, stigmas spreading. Fruit: black, purple, blue, or red (white). Seed: 1--6, black.
Species In Genus: +- 350 species: especially tropics, also temperate North America, eastern Asia. Etymology: (Greek: origin uncertain)
Reference: Cameron & Fu 2006 Aliso 22:598--605
Unabridged Reference: Cameron, K. M. & C. Fu. 2006. A nuclear rDNA phylogeny of Smilax (Smilacaceae). Aliso 22:598--605
Smilax californica (A. DC.) A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Vine; caudex short, knotty. Stem: 2--5 m, +- woody; central pith 0. Leaf: 5--10 cm, ovate, acuminate, dull green, abaxially not glaucous, base +- cordate. Inflorescence: staminate generally 15--30-flowered; pistillate generally 15--35-flowered; peduncles 2--5 cm, drooping. Flower: perianth parts +- 1.5 mm wide, reflexed from middle, linear. Fruit: +- 6 mm, black. Seed: 3. Chromosomes: n=16.
Ecology: Streambanks in conifer forest; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRF, n SNF; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: May--Jun
Jepson eFlora Author: Dale W. McNeal
Reference: Cameron & Fu 2006 Aliso 22:598--605
Unabridged Reference: Cameron, K. M. & C. Fu. 2006. A nuclear rDNA phylogeny of Smilax (Smilacaceae). Aliso 22:598--605
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Botanical illustration including Smilax californica

botanical illustration including Smilax californica

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Citation for this treatment: Dale W. McNeal 2012, Smilax californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=44787, accessed on November 22, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 22, 2019.

Smilax californica
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Smilax californica
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Smilax californica
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Smilax californica
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Smilax californica
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Smilax californica
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson

More photos of Smilax californica in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Smilax californica:
NW, CaRF, n SNF
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.