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Vascular Plants of California
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Listera convallarioides
BROAD-LEAVED TWAYBLADE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ListeraView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: TWAYBLADE
Habit: Rhizomes slender. Leaf: cauline, 2, +- opposite, generally ovate to +- round. Inflorescence: raceme, +- open; flower bract < flower. Flower: sepals +- equal, green to +- purple, lower spreading; lateral petals +- like sepals, ascending to erect; lip generally > sepals, petals, spreading to descending, generally wedge-shaped, flat, tip entire to deeply lobed; column subcylindric, straight to curved, anther at tip. Fruit: generally spreading.
Species In Genus: +- 25 species: temperate, arctic North America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Martin Lister, English naturalist, 1638--1711) Note: Names available in Neottia (earlier name), with same epithets, for all California taxa if Listera treated as congeneric with that genus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, L.K. Magrath, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
Reference: Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids Calif. Cornell Univ
Listera convallarioides (Sw.) Elliott
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 10--35 cm. Leaf: blade 2.5--7 cm, base abruptly tapered or rounded. Inflorescence: 3--4 cm. Flower: sepals 4--5.5 mm; lip 8--13 mm, +- oblanceolate, abruptly narrowed to claw, teeth indistinct, tip notched; column 2.5--3.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Ecology: Moist, shady conifer forest; Elevation: 800--2900 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SNH, SnBr, SnJt, MP; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern North America, Arizona. Flowering Time: May--Aug
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald A. Coleman, L.K. Magrath, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
Reference: Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids Calif. Cornell Univ
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Botanical illustration including Listera convallarioides

botanical illustration including Listera convallarioides

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, L.K. Magrath, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2012, Listera convallarioides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=31224, accessed on September 16, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 16, 2019.

Listera convallarioides
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© 1998 John Game
Listera convallarioides
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Listera convallarioides
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© 2013 Barry Rice
Listera convallarioides
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© 2015 Barry Rice
Listera convallarioides
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© 2009 Barry Rice
Listera convallarioides
click for enlargement
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Listera convallarioides in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Listera convallarioides:
NW, CaR, SNH, SnBr, SnJt, MP
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.