Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Erythranthe cardinalis
SCARLET MONKEYFLOWER


Higher Taxonomy
Family: PhrymaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: LOPSEED FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub. Stem: ×-section generally round. Leaf: opposite, simple, generally entire or toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, or panicle, bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx radial or +- bilateral, tube long, generally ribbed, lobes 5; corolla generally bilateral, generally 2-lipped, upper [1]2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; stamens 4 in 2 pairs, epipetalous, included or exserted; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas parietal or axile, style 1, stigma lobes 2, flat, folding together when touched. Fruit: generally capsule, generally ellipsoid, loculicidal [indehiscent, 1-seeded].
Genera In Family: +- 12 genera, 200 species: +- worldwide, many habitats; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Diplacus, Erythranthe). Formerly included in Scrophulariaceae. Note: Family description by David J. Keil.
eFlora Treatment Author: Naomi S. Fraga [TJM2 author David M. Thompson]
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ErythrantheView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: MONKEYFLOWER
Habit: Annual or perennial herb, glabrous to hairy. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: generally +- sessile, generally green or +- red. Inflorescence: raceme, bracted, or flowers generally 2 per axil. Flower: occasionally cleistogamous; calyx generally green, lobes 5, generally << tube, generally unequal; corolla generally deciduous, white to red, maroon, purple, gold, or yellow, lower lip base occasionally swollen, +- closing mouth, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds; anther sacs spreading; placentas 2, axile; stigma lobes generally included. Fruit: generally ellipsoid, generally upcurved if elongate, generally +- fragile, loculicidal near tip (hard, indehiscent), chambers 1--2. Seed: many, generally < 1 mm, ovoid, +- yellow to dark brown.
Species In Genus: +- 122 species: North America, Chile, eastern Asia. Etymology: (Greek: red flower) Note: Limb width measured between most distant points across corolla face.
eFlora Treatment Author: Naomi S. Fraga [TJM2 author David M. Thompson]
Reference: Barker et al. 2012 Phytoneuron 2012-39:1--60; Nesom 2017 Phytoneuron 2017-17:1--29
Erythranthe cardinalis (Douglas ex Benth.) Spach
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb, rhizomed, hairy. Stem: 25--80 cm, generally decumbent to ascending. Leaf: 20--80 mm, oblong to obovate, palmately 3--5-veined, distal clasping stem. Flower: pedicel 50--80 mm; calyx 20--30 mm, hairy, lobes equal, 4--5 mm, acute to acuminate; corolla orange to red, tube-throat 40--50 mm, upper lip arched forward, lower lip reflexed; anthers, stigma exserted. Fruit: 16--18 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Moist to wet places along streams, seepage areas; Elevation: < 2400 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, W&I, DMtns (Panamint Range); Distribution Outside California: to Oregon, Nevada, Baja California. Flowering Time: May--Sep
Synonyms: Mimulus cardinalis Benth.; Mimulus cardinalis var. griseus Greene; Mimulus cardinalis var. rigens Greene
Jepson eFlora Author: Naomi S. Fraga [TJM2 author David M. Thompson]
Reference: Barker et al. 2012 Phytoneuron 2012-39:1--60; Nesom 2017 Phytoneuron 2017-17:1--29
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Citation for this treatment: Naomi S. Fraga 2018, Erythranthe cardinalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 6, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=25147, accessed on August 18, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on August 18, 2019.

Erythranthe cardinalis
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Erythranthe cardinalis
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Erythranthe cardinalis
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Erythranthe cardinalis
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Erythranthe cardinalis
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Erythranthe cardinalis
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer

More photos of Erythranthe cardinalis in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Erythranthe cardinalis:
CA-FP, W&I, DMtns (Panamint Range)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.