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Caulanthus californicus
CALIFORNIA JEWELFLOWER


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: MUSTARD FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CaulanthusView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: JEWELFLOWER
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, glabrous or hairs simple (forked). Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire, dentate or pinnately lobed, generally deciduous; cauline petioled, or sessile with bases lobed or sagittate. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: calyx urn-shaped or cylindric, sepals erect (spreading), base sac-like or not; petals yellow, purple, brown, or white, generally channeled, margin wavy or not; stamens in 3 pairs of equal length, or 4 long and 2 short, (all equal), free or filaments of longer pair(s) fused. Fruit: silique, linear, dehiscent, unsegmented, +- sessile, cylindric (flat perpendicular or parallel to septum); stigma entire or 2-lobed. Seed: 24--210, 1 row per chamber, oblong to ovate (+- spheric), plump, wing 0.
Species In Genus: 17 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. Etymology: (Greek: stem flower, in reference to insertion of flowers along stem)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
Caulanthus californicus (S. Watson) Payson
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, +- glabrous, or sparsely bristly proximally. Stem: decumbent to erect, 0.9--5.5 dm, generally branched distally. Leaf: basal rosetted, 1--11 cm, oblanceolate, coarsely dentate to shallowly lobed; cauline sessile, ovate to +- round, entire to coarsely dentate, base lobed to clasping. Inflorescence: terminal sterile flower cluster present. Flower: sepals erect to ascending, 4--9(11) mm, keeled; petals 5.5--12 mm, margins wavy, +- white, veins purple; filaments in 3 pairs of unequal length, free or longest pair fused. Fruit: ascending to reflexed, 1.7--5 cm, 3.5--6 mm wide, flat perpendicular to septum; style 0.2--2.7 mm, stigma strongly 2-lobed, lobes opposite valves; pedicel reflexed to ascending, 2--11 mm. Seed: 46--100, 1--1.6 mm wide, +- spheric; cotyledons deeply 3-lobed. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Flats, slopes, generally in non-alkaline grassland; Elevation: 70--1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SnJV, WTR. Flowering Time: Feb--Apr Note: Formerly more widespread in s San Joaquin Valley.
Unabridged Synonyms: Stanfordia californica S. Watson
Jepson eFlora Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Next taxon: Caulanthus cooperi

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Botanical illustration including Caulanthus californicus

botanical illustration including Caulanthus californicus

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Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2012, Caulanthus californicus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=18410, accessed on November 22, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 22, 2019.

Caulanthus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Caulanthus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Caulanthus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Caulanthus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2016 Neal Kramer
Caulanthus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2016 Neal Kramer
Caulanthus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer

More photos of Caulanthus californicus in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Caulanthus californicus:
s SnJV, WTR.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.