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    Vascular Plants of California
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Toxicodendron
POISON OAK, POISON IVY

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AnacardiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SUMAC or CASHEW FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree; generally dioecious or flowers bisexual and unisexual; resin clear, often weathering black, generally aromatic, latex milky or 0. Leaf: simple to ternate- or odd-pinnate-compound, alternate, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flowers generally many. Flower: generally unisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, base generally +- fused; petals 5, generally > sepals, free; (perianth parts 1--7 in Pistacia); stamens 4--7 or 10, vestigial in pistillate flowers; ovary superior, vestigial or 0 in staminate flowers, subtended by +- lobed, disk-like nectary, chamber generally 1, ovule generally 1, styles 1--3. Fruit: drupe-like, generally +- flat, sticky or not, hairs short or 0; pulp +- resinous, aromatic or not.
Genera In Family: 70+ genera, +- 850 species: tropics, warm temperate; some ornamental (Rhus, Schinus), cultivated for fruit (Anacardium, cashew; Mangifera, mango; Pistacia, pistachio). Toxicity: TOXIC: many genera produce contact dermatitis.
eFlora Treatment Author: John M. Miller & Dieter H. Wilken, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Toxicodendron
Habit: Shrub, vine-like or not; generally dioecious. Leaf: +- resinous; leaflets 3--9, thin to +- leathery, entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, axillary, +- open; flowers pedicelled. Flower: stamens 5, vestigial in pistillate flowers; styles +- fused, stigmas 3. Fruit: generally spheric, papery or leathery in age, cream to brown; pulp resinous.
Species In Genus: 15 species: America, eastern Asia. Etymology: (Latin: poisonous tree) Toxicity: TOXIC: resin on leaves, stems, fruits causes severe contact dermatitis; one of the most hazardous plants in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: John M. Miller & Dieter H. Wilken
Unabridged Reference: Yiet al. 2007 Syst Bot 32:379--391; Pell 2004 Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge; Cronquist et al. 1997 Anacardiaceae In: Intermountain Flora 3A: 313--317; Wannan & Quinn 1991 Bot J Linn Soc 107:349--385; Wannan & Quinn 1990 Bot J Linn Soc 103:225--252; Ibe & Leis 1979 Bull Torrey Bot Club 106:140--144; Gillis 1971 Rhodora 73:72--159, 161--237, 370--443, 465--540
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Citation for this treatment: John M. Miller & Dieter H. Wilken 2012, Toxicodendron, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=9982, accessed on July 19, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 19, 2018.