Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Erythranthe primuloides

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PhrymaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub. Stem: ×-section generally round. Leaf: opposite, simple, generally entire or toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, or panicle, bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx radial or +- bilateral, tube long, generally ribbed, lobes 5; corolla generally bilateral, generally 2-lipped, upper [1]2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; stamens 4 in 2 pairs, epipetalous, included or exserted; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas parietal or axile, style 1, stigma lobes 2, flat, folding together when touched. Fruit: generally capsule, generally ellipsoid, loculicidal [indehiscent, 1-seeded].
Genera In Family: +- 12 genera, 200 species: +- worldwide, many habitats; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Diplacus, Erythranthe). Formerly included in Scrophulariaceae. Note: Family description by David J. Keil.
eFlora Treatment Author: Naomi S. Fraga [TJM2 author David M. Thompson]
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ErythrantheView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual or perennial herb, glabrous to hairy. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: generally +- sessile, generally green or +- red. Inflorescence: raceme, bracted, or flowers generally 2 per axil. Flower: occasionally cleistogamous; calyx generally green, lobes 5, generally << tube, generally unequal; corolla generally deciduous, white to red, maroon, purple, gold, or yellow, lower lip base occasionally swollen, +- closing mouth, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds; anther sacs spreading; placentas 2, axile; stigma lobes generally included. Fruit: generally ellipsoid, generally upcurved if elongate, generally +- fragile, loculicidal near tip (hard, indehiscent), chambers 1--2. Seed: many, generally < 1 mm, ovoid, +- yellow to dark brown.
Species In Genus: +- 122 species: North America, Chile, eastern Asia. Etymology: (Greek: red flower) Note: Limb width measured between most distant points across corolla face.
eFlora Treatment Author: Naomi S. Fraga [TJM2 author David M. Thompson]
Reference: Barker et al. 2012 Phytoneuron 2012-39:1--60; Nesom 2017 Phytoneuron 2017-17:1--29
Erythranthe primuloides (Benth.) G.L. Nesom & N.S. Fraga
Habit: Perennial herb; rhizomes or stolons forming mats of +- distinct rosettes; forming bulblets in fall. Stem: 0.5--4 cm, glabrous. Leaf: palmately 3-veined; generally +- spreading in +- distinct rosettes, 7--40 mm, oblong to obovate, adaxially glabrous to densely long-hairy. Flower: pedicel 10--120 mm, stiffly erect; calyx 5--9 mm, glabrous, lobes equal, 0.5--1.5 mm; corolla yellow, tube-throat 8--20 mm, base of lower lip lobes generally red-spotted. Fruit: 6--7 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=34.
Ecology: Wet meadows, seeps, streambanks; Elevation: 600--3400 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN, WTR, SnBr, SnJt, GB; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, Nevada. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Occasionally small, hairy plants (of e.g., Echo Summit, El Dorado Co.) have been recognized taxonomically, as Mimulus primuloides var. pilosellus (Greene) Smiley, but variation +- continuous.
Synonyms: Mimulus primuloides Benth.; Mimulus pilosellus Greene; Mimulus primuloides var. minimus M. Peck; Mimulus primuloides var. pilosellus (Greene) Smiley
Jepson eFlora Author: Naomi S. Fraga [TJM2 author David M. Thompson]
Reference: Barker et al. 2012 Phytoneuron 2012-39:1--60; Nesom 2017 Phytoneuron 2017-17:1--29
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Citation for this treatment: Naomi S. Fraga 2018, Erythranthe primuloides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 6,, accessed on March 24, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 24, 2019.

Mimulus primuloides var. primuloides
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Mimulus primuloides var. primuloides
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© 2017 Keir Morse
Mimulus primuloides
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© 2001 Steve Schoenig
Mimulus primuloides subsp. primuloides
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© 2005 Christopher L. Christie
Mimulus primuloides var. primuloides
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© 2016 Barry Rice
Mimulus primuloides var. primuloides
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© 2017 Neal Kramer

More photos of Mimulus primuloides var. primuloides in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Erythranthe primuloides:
NW, CaR, SN, WTR, SnBr, SnJt, GB;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.