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Crocanthemum scoparium var. scoparium

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CistaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub, aromatic, of sunny areas, often sandy or chalky substrates; hairs nonglandular, in stellate clumps or not, peltate or not, and/or glandular. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite [whorled], often +- reduced, entire or not, petioled or not, stipuled or not. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like cymes or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, +- radial; sepals 3 or 5 (outer 2 often narrower), free or fused at very base, often persistent in fruit, 3 twisted in direction opposite that of petals; petals [0(3)]4--5, generally ephemeral; stamens (3--10) many, free, often sensitive to touch, +- persistent in fruit or not; ovary superior, chambers 1 (or +- 3--12 from intruded parietal placentas), style 0--1, stigma 1(3), lobes 0 or 3--12. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, valves 3--12. Seed: [1--]3--many.
Genera In Family: 8 genera, +- 175 species: temperate, especially southeastern United States, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Cistus; Crocanthemum; Tuberaria). Note: Flowers open in sunshine for < 1 day. Taxa of Helianthemum in TJM2 treated here in Crocanthemum.
eFlora Treatment Author: John W. Thieret & Elizabeth McClintock, final revision by Thomas J. Rosatti & Bruce G. Baldwin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CrocanthemumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb or subshrub, deciduous, generally late summer, fall; hairs generally in stellate clumps, rarely glandular (except inflorescence), sparse to dense. Stem: generally erect, +- broom-like. Leaf: basal 0 [present]; cauline generally alternate, generally linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, sessile to short-petioled, margins entire, generally rolled under, stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like, glandular hairs on branches, pedicels generally 0 to sparse; cleistogamous flowers 0 [present]. Flower: sepals 5, outer 2 generally narrower; petals yellow; stamens 10--many; style < 2 mm, stigma +- hemispheric. Fruit: generally +- ovoid; valves generally 3.
Species In Genus: 21 species: North America to South America. Etymology: (Greek: yellow flower) Note: Esp abundant after fire, resprouting from woody caudex. New World taxa transferred from polyphyletic Helianthemum by Sorrie. Descriptions refer to opening flowers; cleistogamous flowers (0 in California), sometimes produced later, lack petals. Flowers of Crocanthemum scoparium from Mt. Diablo reported to have 5 stamens, which instead seem to represent 5 united pairs.
Unabridged Note: Based on molecular and other data (as yet unpublished, by Jenny Arrington & Paul Manos) Helianthemum is polyphyletic; California taxa more closely related to Crocanthemum and Hudsonia than to Helianthemum; New World members treated in Crocanthemum by Sorrie, who is preparing treatment for FNANM.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce A. Sorrie & Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Sorrie 2012 Phytologia 93:270--271
Species: Crocanthemum scopariumView Description 

Stem: 10--45 cm. Leaf: petiole 0--2 mm; blade 5--11 mm, 0.5--2(--3.5) mm wide. Flower: outer sepals 1.5--3.5 mm, +- 0.3 mm wide, linear, inner 3.5--5(--7.5) mm, 2--3 mm wide, ovate, acute to acuminate; petals 4--8 mm, obovate; stamens 10--18. Fruit: 3--4 mm. Seed: 6--10.

Crocanthemum scoparium (Nutt.) Millsp. var. scoparium
Stem: generally 10--30 cm, proximally spreading and distally ascending or proximally ascending and distally erect. Flower: 1--10 per stem; outer sepals 1.5--2.5 mm.
Ecology: Dry sandy or rocky slopes, ridges in coastal sage scrub, chaparral; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, SCo (rare), n ChI (Santa Cruz Island); Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul Note: Unnamed variant with at least distal branches, pedicels, sepals white-woolly hairy, sporadic along coast (Monterey Co. to San Diego Co.) and on Santa Cruz Island, in need of study; a second, informally named "Helianthemum mendocinensis" by Alice Eastwood, with densely stellate-hairy stems and inner sepals to 7.5 mm, local in coastal Mendocino Co., also needs study.
Synonyms: Helianthemum scoparium Nutt. var. scoparium; Helianthemum scoparium Nutt. sensu TJM2 (2012), in part;
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce A. Sorrie & Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Sorrie 2012 Phytologia 93:270--271
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Citation for this treatment: Bruce A. Sorrie & Thomas J. Rosatti 2013, Crocanthemum scoparium var. scoparium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 1,, accessed on September 25, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 25, 2018.

Geographic subdivisions for Crocanthemum scoparium var. scoparium:
NCo, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, SCo (rare), n ChI (Santa Cruz Island);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.