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Vascular Plants of California
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Avicennia marina var. australasica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AcanthaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: [Annual, perennial herb to] shrub, [tree], nodes generally swollen. Leaf: simple, generally opposite, entire (toothed [lobed]); stipules 0. Inflorescence: variable, with bracts, generally also bractlets. Flower: bisexual; calyx deeply (3)4--5 lobed [(sepals free)]; corolla 4--5 lobed, radial to 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, anther sacs sometimes dissimilar in size or placement; ovary superior, 4--many-ovuled, chambers 1--2, placentas axile (free central), stigmas 1--2. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2. Seed: 1--4[+], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit.
Genera In Family: 220 genera, 4000 species: especially tropics; some ornamental: Justicia (Beloperone, shrimp-plant), Acanthus, Thunbergia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Lawrence R. Heckard, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: AvicenniaView Description 

Habit: Shrub [to tree]; roots spreading, exposed at low tide. Leaf: persistent, petioled; blade thick. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, head-like, < peduncle; bractlets 3, generally < calyx, outer 1 > inner 2. Flower: calyx deeply 5-lobed; corolla 4-lobed, radial, rotate; stamens 4, attached at 1 level. Fruit: ellipsoid to ovoid, often asymmetric, 1-chambered, generally indehiscent; stalk not flat.
Species In Genus: +- 8 species: temperate, subtropics worldwide, generally coastal marshes, lagoons. Etymology: (Avicenna, Persian physician, philosopher, 980--1037) Note: Placement in Acanthaceae s.l. fairly well established; sister group relationship with Thunbergioideae weakly supported (Schwarzbach & McDade 2002; Hilu et al. 2003).
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken
Reference: Duke et al. 1998 Evolution 52:1612--1626
Unabridged Reference: Moran 1980 Madroño 27:143
Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. australasica (Walp.) Moldenke
Stem: < 2.5 m; trunk < 10 cm diam. Leaf: 4--11 cm, elliptic to ovate, leathery; adaxially +- shiny, abaxially felt-like. Inflorescence: 4--9-flowered; peduncles 2--4 cm; bractlets +- ovate. Flower: corolla +- yellow-white, lobes +- ovate, leathery, puberulent abaxially. Fruit: +- 2 cm diam, ovoid.
Ecology: Coastal salt marshes; Elevation: +- 0 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.); Distribution Outside California: native to New Zealand, Australasia. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: First planted in 1960s, then weedy, extirpation failed in 1990.
Synonyms: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (G. Forst.) Bakh.
Jepson eFlora Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken
Reference: Duke et al. 1998 Evolution 52:1612--1626
Unabridged Reference: Moran 1980 Madroño 27:143
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Citation for this treatment: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken 2012, Avicennia marina var. australasica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 26, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 26, 2019.

No expert verified images found for Avicennia marina var. australasica.

Geographic subdivisions for Avicennia marina var. australasica:
SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.