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Avicennia marina var. australasica
GRAY MANGROVE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AcanthaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ACANTHUS FAMILY
Habit: [Annual, perennial herb to] shrub, [tree], nodes generally swollen. Leaf: simple, generally opposite, entire (toothed [lobed]); stipules 0. Inflorescence: variable, with bracts, generally also bractlets. Flower: bisexual; calyx deeply (3)4--5 lobed [(sepals free)]; corolla 4--5 lobed, radial to 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, anther sacs sometimes dissimilar in size or placement; ovary superior, 4--many-ovuled, chambers 1--2, placentas axile (free central), stigmas 1--2. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2. Seed: 1--4[+], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit.
Genera In Family: 220 genera, 4000 species: especially tropics; some ornamental: Justicia (Beloperone, shrimp-plant), Acanthus, Thunbergia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Lawrence R. Heckard, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: AvicenniaView Description 

Habit: Shrub [to tree]; roots spreading, exposed at low tide. Leaf: persistent, petioled; blade thick. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, head-like, < peduncle; bractlets 3, generally < calyx, outer 1 > inner 2. Flower: calyx deeply 5-lobed; corolla 4-lobed, radial, rotate; stamens 4, attached at 1 level. Fruit: ellipsoid to ovoid, often asymmetric, 1-chambered, generally indehiscent; stalk not flat.
Species In Genus: +- 8 species: temperate, subtropics worldwide, generally coastal marshes, lagoons. Etymology: (Avicenna, Persian physician, philosopher, 980--1037) Note: Placement in Acanthaceae s.l. fairly well established; sister group relationship with Thunbergioideae weakly supported (Schwarzbach & McDade 2002; Hilu et al. 2003).
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. australasica (Walp.) Moldenke
NATURALIZED
Stem: < 2.5 m; trunk < 10 cm diam. Leaf: 4--11 cm, elliptic to ovate, leathery; adaxially +- shiny, abaxially felt-like. Inflorescence: 4--9-flowered; peduncles 2--4 cm; bractlets +- ovate. Flower: corolla +- yellow-white, lobes +- ovate, leathery, puberulent abaxially. Fruit: +- 2 cm diam, ovoid.
Ecology: Coastal salt marshes; Elevation: +- 0 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.); Distribution Outside California: native to New Zealand, Australasia. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: First planted in 1960s, then weedy, extirpation failed in 1990.
Synonyms: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (G. Forst.) Bakh.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken
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Citation for this treatment: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Avicennia marina var. australasica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=95202, accessed on December 10, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 10, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Avicennia marina var. australasica:
SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.