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Avicennia marina var. australasica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AcanthaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: [Annual, perennial herb to] shrub, [tree], nodes generally swollen. Leaf: simple, generally opposite, entire (toothed [lobed]); stipules 0. Inflorescence: variable, with bracts, generally also bractlets. Flower: bisexual; calyx deeply (3)4--5 lobed [(sepals free)]; corolla 4--5 lobed, radial to 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, anther sacs sometimes dissimilar in size or placement; ovary superior, 4--many-ovuled, chambers 1--2, placentas axile (free central), stigmas 1--2. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2. Seed: 1--4[+], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit.
Genera In Family: 220 genera, 4000 species: especially tropics; some ornamental: Justicia (Beloperone, shrimp-plant), Acanthus, Thunbergia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Lawrence R. Heckard, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: AvicenniaView Description 

Habit: Shrub [to tree]; roots spreading, exposed at low tide. Leaf: persistent, petioled; blade thick. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, head-like, < peduncle; bractlets 3, generally < calyx, outer 1 > inner 2. Flower: calyx deeply 5-lobed; corolla 4-lobed, radial, rotate; stamens 4, attached at 1 level. Fruit: ellipsoid to ovoid, often asymmetric, 1-chambered, generally indehiscent; stalk not flat.
Species In Genus: +- 8 species: temperate, subtropics worldwide, generally coastal marshes, lagoons. Etymology: (Avicenna, Persian physician, philosopher, 980--1037) Note: Placement in Acanthaceae s.l. fairly well established; sister group relationship with Thunbergioideae weakly supported (Schwarzbach & McDade 2002; Hilu et al. 2003).
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. australasica (Walp.) Moldenke
Stem: < 2.5 m; trunk < 10 cm diam. Leaf: 4--11 cm, elliptic to ovate, leathery; adaxially +- shiny, abaxially felt-like. Inflorescence: 4--9-flowered; peduncles 2--4 cm; bractlets +- ovate. Flower: corolla +- yellow-white, lobes +- ovate, leathery, puberulent abaxially. Fruit: +- 2 cm diam, ovoid.
Ecology: Coastal salt marshes; Elevation: +- 0 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.); Distribution Outside California: native to New Zealand, Australasia. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: First planted in 1960s, then weedy, extirpation failed in 1990.
Synonyms: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (G. Forst.) Bakh.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken
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Citation for this treatment: Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Avicennia marina var. australasica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Avicennia marina var. australasica:
SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.