Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon


Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum


Higher Taxonomy
Family: MelanthiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: FALSE-HELLEBORE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, +- spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 130 species: northern hemisphere. Note: W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ToxicoscordionView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: DEATH CAMAS
Stem: +- scapose. Leaf: +- basal, reduced upward, linear, generally folded, +- curved, entire, deciduous after 1 year. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flower bracts 1 (or reportedly 2). Flower: staminate, sterile, or generally bisexual; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or +- fused to ovary base, white to +- yellow [or not], adaxially with [0]1[2] glands near base; stamens 6, free to +- attached to perianth; ovary superior, chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, septicidal. Seed: many.
Species In Genus: +- 8 species: central United States, western North America. Etymology: (Greek: poison garlic, for poisonous bulb) Toxicity: All taxa highly TOXIC (generally unpalatable) to livestock, humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs). Note: As treated in TJM (1993), Zigadenus polyphyletic, so California members transferred to Toxicoscordion (Zomlefer & Judd 2002 Novon 12:299--308).
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal & Wendy B. Zomlefer
Toxicoscordion venenosum (S. Watson) Rydb. var. venenosum
NATIVE
Habit: Bulb 12--25 mm diam, widely ovate; outer coat +- brown. Stem: 15--70 cm, glabrous. Leaf: 10--40 cm, 4--10 mm wide, scabrous-ciliate. Inflorescence: raceme except occasionally with 1 branch below, 5--25 cm; bracts 5--25 mm, white-membranous to generally green; pedicels in fruit spreading to generally ascending, 3--25 mm. Flower: bisexual; perianth parts 4--6 mm, +- ovate, obtuse, outer generally with claw < 5 mm, inner clawed, gland distal margin evident or not; stamens =, occasionally > perianth; styles erect. Fruit: 8--14 mm, cylindric. Chromosomes: n=11.
Ecology: Moist meadows to dry rocky hillsides; Elevation: < 2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN, CW, WTR, PR, GB, DMtns; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, central United States, Arizona, northern Baja California. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Synonyms: Zigadenus venenosus S. Watson var. venenosus
Jepson eFlora Author: Dale W. McNeal & Wendy B. Zomlefer
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Toxicoscordion paniculatum
Next taxon: Trillium

Name Search

Botanical illustration including Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum

botanical illustration including Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Dale W. McNeal & Wendy B. Zomlefer 2012, Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=93851, accessed on October 19, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 19, 2019.

Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
click for enlargement
© 1998 Larry Blakely
Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Rice
Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
click for enlargement
© 2001 Gary A. Monroe
Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum:
NW, CaR, SN, CW, WTR, PR, GB, DMtns
MAP CONTROLS
1. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
3. Filling of Jepson subdivision polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
4. Moving the cursor over any numbered cluster will show the range boundary of the included specimens (with a blue polygon).
5. Marker clustering can be turned off by clicking this link:      Marker Clustering OFF
WARNING: Turning this off might cause maps with large numbers of specimens to load slowly.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

View elevation by latitude chart


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
MAP LEGEND
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.