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Higher Taxonomy
Family: AquifoliaceaeView Description 

Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen [deciduous]; dioecious or +- so. Leaf: generally alternate, simple, often spiny, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally axillary. Flower: generally unisexual, radial; sepals generally 4, generally fused at base; petals 4, fused at base [free], white [green]; stamens generally 4, generally alternate petals; ovary superior, chambers often 4, generally 1-ovuled, style 0 or terminal, short, stigma head-like or lobed. Fruit: drupe, generally red [purple to black or yellow to +- white]; stones generally 4.
Genera In Family: 4 genera, 300--400 species: tropics, temperate.
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth McClintock
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Leaf: petioled; adaxially generally shiny. Flower: sepals persistent in fruit; petals oblong or obovate. Fruit: pulpy.
Species In Genus: 300--400 species: especially tropics. Etymology: (Latin: name for Medit holly-oak, Quercus ilex L.) Note: Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton occasionally persisting from cultivation.
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth McClintock
Reference: Zika 2010 Madroño 57:1--10
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Citation for this treatment: Elizabeth McClintock 2012, Ilex, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 22, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 22, 2018.