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Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. cushingiana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ArctostaphylosView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MANZANITA
Habit: Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally +- red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally +- gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally +- like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: +- raceme (generally 0--1-branched) or panicle (generally 2--10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4--6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4--10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally +- depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, +- mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2--10, free, fused, or some fused.
Species In Genus: +- 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Unabridged Note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61--77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
Species: Arctostaphylos glandulosaView Description 

Habit: Shrub, erect, 1--4 m; burl hemispheric. Stem: twig (and nascent inflorescence axis, pedicel) glandular- or nonglandular-hairy, glands black, clear, or 0. Leaf: ascending or erect; petiole 5--10 mm; blade 2--4.5 cm, 1--2.5 cm wide, elliptic to ovate, bright green to gray-green or strongly glaucous, shiny or dull, glandular-puberulent to -hairy, papillate, scabrous or not, puberulent to tomentose, or in age glabrous, base wedge-shaped to rounded, occasionally +- lobed or truncate, tip acute, margin entire or toothed; stomata both surfaces or adaxial fewer than abaxial. Inflorescence: panicle, 3--6-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, +- crowded, hairy, glandular-hairy or not; axis 1--3 cm, > 1 mm wide; pedicel 3--10 mm. Fruit: 6--10 mm wide, depressed-spheric, glabrous, sticky, or glandular-hairy; stones generally free. Chromosomes: 2n=52.
Note: 2 more subspecies in Baja California.

Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. cushingiana (Eastw.) J.E. Keeley, M.C. Vasey & V.T. Parker
Stem: twig sparsely short-nonglandular-hairy. Leaf: blade smooth, green or gray-green. Inflorescence: nascent inflorescence axis, bract, pedicel, ovary densely white-nonglandular-hairy, some bracts leaf-like.
Ecology: Chaparral, conifer forest; Elevation: 50--1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoR, SnFrB, SCoR, PR; Distribution Outside California: northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Jan--Apr
Synonyms: Arctostaphylos cushingiana Eastw.; Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. cushingiana (Eastw.) J.E. Adams ex McMinn; Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. f. cushingiana (Eastw.) P.V. Wells
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
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Citation for this treatment: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley 2016. Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. cushingiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. cushingiana:
KR, NCoR, SnFrB, SCoR, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.