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Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides

Higher Taxonomy
Family: FagaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: OAK FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen or not; monoecious. Leaf: simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous. Staminate Inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike, many-flowered. Pistillate Inflorescence: 1--few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric. Staminate Flower: calyx generally 4--6-lobed, minute; petals 0; stamens 4--12+. Pistillate Flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3. Fruit: 1 nut subtended, partly enclosed by scaly, cup-like involucre or 1--3 nuts subtended, enclosed by spiny, bur-like involucre; mature years 1--2. Seed: generally 1.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, +- 900 species: generally northern hemisphere. Note: Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus), cork (Quercus suber), food (Castanea, chestnut). Lithocarpus densiflorus moved to Notholithocarpus.
eFlora Treatment Author: John M. Tucker, except as noted
Genus: NotholithocarpusView Description 


Species In Genus: 1 sp.: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: false Lithocarpus) Note: Molecular studies indicate closer relationship with Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus than with Lithocarpus, from which it is now segregated.
Species: Notholithocarpus densiflorusView Description 

Habit: Shrub, tree < 30(45) m, evergreen; trunk bark gray-brown. Leaf: petioles 10--25 mm; blade 3--14 cm, oblong to +- ovate, adaxially sparsely stellate-hairy, +- glabrous in age, abaxially fine-woolly, in age +- glabrous, base +- rounded, tip obtuse, margin entire to serrate; stipules early-deciduous. Staminate Inflorescence: spike, stiff, spreading to erect, many-flowered, dense. Pistillate Inflorescence: below staminate inflorescence on same or separate stalk, 1-flowered. Staminate Flower: sepals 5--6, minute; stamens 10--12. Fruit: mature year 2; nut 1, 20--35 mm, ovoid to +- spheric, partly enclosed by cup-like involucre (cup), remnants of perianth and style persistent as small point at tip; cup (1.5)2--3 cm diam, saucer-shaped, scales slender, +- tapered, reflexed to spreading.

Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides (R. Br. ter) Manos, C.H. Cannon & S. Oh
Leaf: 3--5(8) cm, 10--30 mm wide.
Ecology: Mixed-conifer and red-fir forest; Elevation: 600--2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaR, SN; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
Synonyms: Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehder var. echinoides (R. Br. ter) Abrams
eFlora Treatment Author: John M. Tucker
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botanical illustration including Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides


Citation for this treatment: John M. Tucker 2016. Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides
click for enlargement
© 2007 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides
click for enlargement
© 2012 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides
click for enlargement
© 2012 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer

More photos of Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides:
KR, CaR, SN;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.