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Botrypus virginianus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OphioglossaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, small, fleshy, generally glabrous; caudex generally underground, unbranched; roots glabrous with bulblets or plantlets or not. Leaf: generally 1 per caudex per year, divided into 2 facing parts with a common stalk,(0)1 sterile and 1(2) fertile (fertile occasionally aborted); sterile photosynthetic part (trophophore) separated from spore-bearing part (sporophore) at to well above ground level; trophophore simple to compound, veins free and forked or netted with included veinlets; sporophore simple to compound, or 0 in young pls. Sporangia: dehiscent into 2 valves, +- 1 mm wide, thick-walled.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 80--100 species: +- worldwide, generally rare or overlooked.
Unabridged Note: Distantly related to most (leptosporangiate) ferns. Haploid (gametophyte) generation underground. Both diploid and haploid generations obligately mycorrhizal. The family Psilotaceae (whisk ferns, 2 genera), sister to Ophioglossaceae, is represented in California (SCo) by 1 (of 2 total) apparently introduced species, Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. Psilotum is easily distinguished by the dichotomously branching, almost leafless green stems, lack of roots, and large (2--3 mm) 3-lobed sporangia; sporangia are borne on the adaxial (upper) side of a minute (+- 1 mm) forked leaf. Pantrop, subtrop (nearest native populations in Arizona and in Sonora, Mexico); expected in cultivation areas, especially at bases of old palms, possibly brought in on root masses as subterranean gametophytes. [Pryer et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:1582--1598]
eFlora Treatment Author: Donald R. Farrar, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Alan R. Smith, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: BotrypusView Description 

Common Name: RATTLESNAKE FERN
Habit: Roots smooth, without bulblets or plantlets. Leaf: deciduous; bud hairy; sporophore, trophophore joined well above ground level; trophophore blade generally 3--4-pinnate, deltate to ternately triangular, thin, membranous, ultimate segments midribbed; sporophore 1--3-pinnate, absent in young pls. Sporangia: not sunken in axis; stalk 0 or short.
Species In Genus: 2--3 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: bunch of grapes, from clusters of sporangia)

Botrypus virginianus (L.) Michx.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant often robust, herbaceous, deciduous; roots 2 mm thick (1 cm from base), smooth, yellow to brown. Leaf: bud hairy; trophophore sessile, < 20 cm wide, ultimate segments linear to ovate, veins free, forked, margins entire to coarsely serrate to deeply lobed; sporophore stalk long, 2--3-pinnate. Chromosomes: 2n=184.
Ecology: Moist shaded valleys along small streams; Elevation: 700--1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaR; Distribution Outside California: throughout America, Europe, Asia.
Synonyms: Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.
eFlora Treatment Author: Donald R. Farrar
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Citation for this treatment: Donald R. Farrar 2016. Botrypus virginianus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=91686, accessed on August 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on August 27, 2016.


Botrypus virginianus
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© 2000 John Game

More photos of Botrypus virginianus in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Botrypus virginianus:
KR, CaR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.