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Vascular Plants of California
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Triglochin scilloides
FLOWERING-QUILLWORT


Higher Taxonomy
Family: JuncaginaceaeView Description 
Common Name: ARROW-GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, rhizomed or dense-tufted, terrestrial or aquatic. Leaf: generally +- basal, alternate, +- flat to narrow-cylindric; sheath open, generally liguled. Inflorescence: spike or generally +- scapose raceme; bracts 0. Flower: generally bisexual; perianth parts generally 6 in 2 whorls (0, 1) [3, 4], free, scale-like, +- green or tinged +- red-purple; stamens 0, 1, 3, or 6, filaments short, +- fused to perianth; pistil 1, carpels 1, 6 [3, 4], +- fused, separating in fruit [or not], each with 1 chamber and 1 ovule or 3 carpels fertile, 3 sterile, placentas basal, stigmas generally +- sessile. Fruit: achene or generally mericarps.
Genera In Family: 3 genera, 30 species: temperate, circumboreal, Australia, southern Africa, South America. Note: Lilaea included in Triglochin.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TriglochinView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: ARROW-GRASS
Habit: Plant +- glabrous. Leaf: basal, +- tufted; sheath membranous; ligule tip entire to 2-lobed [0]. Flower: perianth parts generally adaxially concave; anthers +- sessile; stigma papillate or +- plumose. Fruit: achene or generally 3, 6 mericarps. Seed: 1, linear, +- flat or angled.
Species In Genus: +- 20 species: temperate, circumboreal, Australia, southern Africa, South America. Etymology: (Greek: 3 points, from fruits of some) Toxicity: TOXIC when fresh, from cyanogenic compounds.
Triglochin scilloides (Poir.) Mering & Kadereit
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, tufted, in youth submersed, in age +- emergent; roots fibrous. Leaf: 5--20(45) cm, 1--5 mm wide, +- elliptic to +- round in ×-section; ligule +- 1 mm, tip +- obtuse or +- notched. Inflorescence: +- scapose, generally emergent, +- dense spike of bisexual and sometimes staminate flowers, (2)6--20 cm, + 2 submersed, sessile pistillate flowers enclosed in leaf sheath at base of scape. Staminate Flower: perianth part 1, 2--3 mm; stamen 1. Pistillate Flower: perianth 0; carpel 1, style 6--20 cm, thread-like, stigma floating, head-like. Bisexual Flower: perianth part 1, 2--3 mm; stamen 1; carpel 1, style generally short. Fruit: achene, 2--10 mm, ribbed, +- flat, +- winged in bisexual flowers, angled in pistillate flowers, tip truncate with off-center beak. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Vernal pools, streams, ponds, lake margins; Elevation: < 1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRI, SN, GV, CW, SCo, PR, GB; Distribution Outside California: to western Canada, Montana, Mexico, Chile; naturalized in Australia, Iberian Peninsula. Flowering Time: Mar--Oct Note: Previously in Lilaea, yet highly nested in Triglochin, a paraphyletic genus made monophyletic by inclusion of this sp. (von Mering & Kadereit 2010).
Synonyms: Lilaea scilloides (Poir.) Hauman
Unabridged Note: Previously in Lilaea, sometimes in Lilaeaceae, but evidence from molecular biology, embryology, cytology, palynology indicates close relationship with Trigochlin, a paraphyletic genus made monophyletic by inclusion of this sp. (von Mering & Kadereit 2010).
Jepson eFlora Author: David J. Keil
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Botanical illustration including Triglochin scilloides

botanical illustration including Triglochin scilloides

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Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil 2012, Triglochin scilloides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=91083, accessed on June 24, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 24, 2019.

Triglochin scilloides
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Triglochin scilloides
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© 2012 Vernon Smith
Triglochin scilloides
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© 2013 California Academy of Sciences
Triglochin scilloides
click for enlargement
© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Triglochin scilloides
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© 2000 John Game
Triglochin scilloides
click for enlargement
© 2013 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Triglochin scilloides in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Triglochin scilloides:
NCo, NCoRI, SN, GV, CW, SCo, PR, GB
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.