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Vascular Plants of California
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Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ChylismiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, occasionally perennial herb, from taproot. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, lanceolate to ovate, pinnately lobed with large terminal lobe (simple), margin dentate to entire, abaxial face and/or margin with +- conspicuous brown oil cells, long-petioled. Inflorescence: erect or nodding raceme. Flower: generally opening at dawn (occasionally at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed; petals 4, yellow or white (often fading orange-red) or lavender, generally fading red, if yellow generally strongly ultraviolet reflective, often with 1+ red spots near base, occasionally non-reflective near base or throughout; stamens (4)8, longer opposite sepals, anthers attached at middle, filaments long-ciliate or glabrous, pollen grains 3-angled at 20×; stigma entire and spheric or rarely conic-peltate, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated or +- = anthers and self-pollinated. Fruit: straight to curved, not twisted or coiled, valves with obvious midrib, pedicelled. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, lenticular to narrowly ovoid, with +- pronounced membranous margin when immature.
Species In Genus: 16 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: juice) Note: Incl in Camissonia in TJM (1993).
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Unabridged Reference: Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161--396
Chylismia walkeri A. Nelson subsp. tortilis (Jeps.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch
Habit: Annual, short-lived perennial herb; hairs spreading, in inflorescence also glandular or bristly. Stem: 10--60 cm. Leaf: generally basal, simple to 2-pinnate, 30--220 mm, generally purple-dotted; lateral leaflets < 30 mm. Inflorescence: erect; buds drooping. Flower: opening at dawn; hypanthium 1--1.5 mm; sepals 1.5--4 mm, generally purple-dotted, in bud tips free, +- terminal; petals 3--6 mm, yellow. Fruit: ascending or spreading, 10--45 mm, 1.2--1.8 mm wide, cylindric, straight or curved; valves generally twisted; pedicel 5--30 mm. Seed: 0.6--1.2 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Rocky places near cliffs, along ephemeral streams, creosote-bush scrub to pinyon/juniper woodland; Elevation: 600--1800 m. Bioregional Distribution: W&I, n DMoj (Inyo, ne San Bernardino cos.); Distribution Outside California: to southwestern Utah. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun Note: Self-pollinated. Other variety outside California.
Synonyms: Camissonia walkeri (A. Nelson) P.H. Raven subsp. tortilis (Jeps.) P.H. Raven; Oenothera scapoidea Torr. & A. Gray var. tortilis Jeps.; Oenothera walkeri (A. Nelson) P.H. Raven subsp. tortilis (Jeps.) P.H. Raven; Oenothera multijuga S. Watson var. parviflora (S. Watson) Munz
Jepson eFlora Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner 2012, Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, eflora_display.php?tid=89254, accessed on January 29, 2020.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2020, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on January 29, 2020.

Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis
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© 2001 Larry Blakely
Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis
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© 2008 Steve Matson
Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis
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© 2016 Steve Matson
Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis
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© 2015 Steve Matson
Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis
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© 2016 Steve Matson
Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis
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© 2010 James M. Andre

More photos of Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis:
W&I, n DMoj (Inyo, ne San Bernardino cos.)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).