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Chylismia claviformis subsp. cruciformis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ChylismiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, occasionally perennial herb, from taproot. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, lanceolate to ovate, pinnately lobed with large terminal lobe (simple), margin dentate to entire, abaxial face and/or margin with +- conspicuous brown oil cells, long-petioled. Inflorescence: erect or nodding raceme. Flower: generally opening at dawn (occasionally at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed; petals 4, yellow or white (often fading orange-red) or lavender, generally fading red, if yellow generally strongly ultraviolet reflective, often with 1+ red spots near base, occasionally non-reflective near base or throughout; stamens (4)8, longer opposite sepals, anthers attached at middle, filaments long-ciliate or glabrous, pollen grains 3-angled at 20×; stigma entire and spheric or rarely conic-peltate, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated or +- = anthers and self-pollinated. Fruit: straight to curved, not twisted or coiled, valves with obvious midrib, pedicelled. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, lenticular to narrowly ovoid, with +- pronounced membranous margin when immature.
Species In Genus: 16 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: juice) Note: Incl in Camissonia in TJM (1993).
Species: Chylismia claviformisView Description 

Habit: Annual. Stem: 3--70 cm. Leaf: generally basal, generally 1-pinnate; terminal leaflet 8--90 mm, lanceolate to cordate; lateral leaflets < 25 mm or 0. Inflorescence: nodding. Flower: generally opening near dusk; hypanthium 1--6.5 mm; sepals 2--8 mm, free tips in bud present or not; petals 1.5--8 mm, yellow or white; stamens +- equal. Fruit: ascending or spreading, 8--38 mm, wider to tip, straight or curved; pedicel 4--40 mm. Seed: 0.6--1.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Note: Cross-pollinated; most complex, widespread sp. in genus; 11 subspecies, 8 in California.

Chylismia claviformis subsp. cruciformis (Kellogg) W.L. Wagner & Hoch
Habit: Plant strigose or glandular-hairy proximally, glabrous or glandular-hairy distally. Leaf: terminal leaflet < 80 mm, ovate to +- cordate; lateral leaflets few to many. Flower: generally opening at dawn; hypanthium 2--6.5 mm; sepal tips not free in bud; petals 2.5--8 mm, yellow generally fading purple, bases generally red-dotted.
Ecology: Sagebrush scrub; Elevation: 1200--1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: MP; Distribution Outside California: to central Oregon, Idaho, northwestern Nevada. Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: Outside California, intergrades with Chylismia claviformis subsp. integrior.
Synonyms: Camissonia claviformis subsp. cruciformis (Kellogg) P.H. Raven
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner
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Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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botanical illustration including Chylismia claviformis subsp. cruciformis


Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner 2016. Chylismia claviformis subsp. cruciformis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 21, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 21, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Chylismia claviformis subsp. cruciformis:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.