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    Vascular Plants of California
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Epilobium campestre

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: EpilobiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to subshrub. Leaf: generally opposite proximally (or clustered in axils), generally +- fine-toothed; veins generally obscure. Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted. Flower: radial or rarely +- bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4s, cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like, occasionally 4-lobed. Fruit: straight, cylindric to club-like. Seed: generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft.
Species In Genus: 165 species: worldwide except tropics. Etymology: (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary) Note: Incl Boisduvalia, Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers +- = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids. Taxa with alternate leaves moved to Chamerion.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch
Reference: Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326--340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81--95

Epilobium campestre (Jeps.) Hoch & W.L. Wagner
Habit: Annual 1--5.5 dm, taprooted, basal branches generally decumbent, glabrous and peeling proximally, minutely strigose or spreading-hairy distally. Leaf: opposite only near base, +- sessile, 8--35 mm, lanceolate (narrowly), generally hairy. Inflorescence: crowded; bracts narrowly ovate or wider. Flower: generally cleistogamous; hypanthium 0.3--1.1 mm; sepals 0.7--2 mm; petals 1--3.2 mm, pink; stigma club-like, sometimes barely 4-lobed. Fruit: sessile, 3.5--8 mm, cylindric, tough, proximal 1/2 +- indehiscent; axis disintegrating. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, 0.9--1.3 mm, netted, hair-tuft 0. Chromosomes: 2n=30.
Ecology: Vernal pools, clay mud flats; Elevation: 30--3000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (exc ChI, e TR), MP; Distribution Outside California: to western Canada, North Dakota, Utah, northern Baja California; southern South America. Flowering Time: May--Sep
Synonyms: Boisduvalia glabella (Nutt.) Walp.; Boisduvalia glabella var. campestris (Jeps.) Jeps.; Epilobium pygmaeum (Speg.) Hoch & P.H. Raven, illeg.;
Jepson eFlora Author: Peter C. Hoch
Reference: Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326--340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81--95
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botanical illustration including Epilobium campestre


Citation for this treatment: Peter C. Hoch 2012, Epilobium campestre, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 20, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 20, 2018.

Epilobium campestre
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Epilobium campestre
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Epilobium campestre
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© 2003 George W. Hartwell
Epilobium campestre
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© 2007 Steve Matson
Epilobium campestre
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© 1993 Robert E. Preston, Ph.D.
Epilobium campestre
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© 2007 Steve Matson

More photos of Epilobium campestre in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Epilobium campestre:
CA-FP (exc ChI, e TR), MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.