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Viola langsdorffii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola langsdorffii Ging.
Habit: Perennial herb 2--30 cm, generally glabrous. Stem: ascending to erect, generally < 3, from a shallow, thin, fleshy rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 2--3 per caudex, glabrous or hairs scattered along abaxial veins, petiole 0.8--21 cm, blade 0.9--5.8 cm, 1--6 cm wide, ovate to reniform, crenate to crenate-serrate, base cordate to truncate, tip rounded or acute to generally obtuse; cauline petiole 2.2--12.1 cm, blade 1.9--4.2 cm, 1.8--5.9 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.2--20.7 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate to ovate, not ciliate; petals light to deep violet, lower 3 +- white basally, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 12--24 mm, spur 2--5 mm, conspicuous, as long as wide; style head glabrous [occasionally bearded]. Fruit: 7.5--13 mm, ovate to oblong, glabrous. Seed: 2.5--2.8 mm, dark olive to +- black. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: In bogs of coastal sand dunes and sandy, stabilized areas dominated by per species of Carex, Juncus; Elevation: < 10 m. Bioregional Distribution: n NCo (Lake Earl, Del Norte Co.); Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Yukon Territory; Asia. Flowering Time: Apr--Aug
Synonyms: Viola simulata M.S. Baker; Viola superba M.S. Baker
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola langsdorffii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 22, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 22, 2017.

Viola langsdorffii
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© 2009 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Viola langsdorffii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola langsdorffii:
n NCo (Lake Earl, Del Norte Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.