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Vascular Plants of California
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Toxicoscordion micranthum


Higher Taxonomy
Family: MelanthiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: FALSE-HELLEBORE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, +- spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 130 species: northern hemisphere. Note: W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ToxicoscordionView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: DEATH CAMAS
Stem: +- scapose. Leaf: +- basal, reduced upward, linear, generally folded, +- curved, entire, deciduous after 1 year. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flower bracts 1 (or reportedly 2). Flower: staminate, sterile, or generally bisexual; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or +- fused to ovary base, white to +- yellow [or not], adaxially with [0]1[2] glands near base; stamens 6, free to +- attached to perianth; ovary superior, chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, septicidal. Seed: many.
Species In Genus: +- 8 species: central United States, western North America. Etymology: (Greek: poison garlic, for poisonous bulb) Toxicity: All taxa highly TOXIC (generally unpalatable) to livestock, humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs). Note: As treated in TJM (1993), Zigadenus polyphyletic, so California members transferred to Toxicoscordion (Zomlefer & Judd 2002 Novon 12:299--308).
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal & Wendy B. Zomlefer
Toxicoscordion micranthum (Eastw.) A. Heller
NATIVE
Habit: Bulb 10--25 mm diam; outer coat dark brown to black. Stem: 15--50 cm, scabrous at least below. Leaf: < stem, 4--10 mm wide. Inflorescence: generally panicle; bracts 5--40 mm, green to white-membranous; pedicels generally spreading in fruit, with tips upturned or not, 12--40 mm. Flower: bisexual; perianth parts 3--8 mm, ovate to elliptic, not cordate, outer clawed < 5 mm or +- not clawed, inner clawed, gland distal margin evident, dentate; stamens +- = (>) perianth.
Ecology: Dry slopes, flats; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
Synonyms: Zigadenus micranthus Eastw.; Zigadenus micranthus var. micranthus
Jepson eFlora Author: Dale W. McNeal & Wendy B. Zomlefer
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Citation for this treatment: Dale W. McNeal & Wendy B. Zomlefer 2012, Toxicoscordion micranthum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=89164, accessed on October 16, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 16, 2019.

Toxicoscordion micranthum
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© 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Toxicoscordion micranthum
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Toxicoscordion micranthum
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© 2004 George W. Hartwell
Toxicoscordion micranthum
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© 2014 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Toxicoscordion micranthum
click for enlargement
© 2004 George W. Hartwell
Toxicoscordion micranthum
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse

More photos of Toxicoscordion micranthum in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Toxicoscordion micranthum:
NW
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.