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Amphipappus fremontii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: AmphipappusView Description 

Common Name: CHAFF-BUSH

Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Greek: double pappus)
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil & Meredith A. Lane

Amphipappus fremontii Torr. & A. Gray
Habit: Shrub, generally < 6 dm, glabrous or herbage minutely stiff-hairy. Stem: much-branched, widely spreading to ascending, striate, smooth, white distally, +- gray proximally; leafless stems thorny. Leaf: alternate, short-petioled, generally < 2 cm, obovate or elliptic, entire, sometimes +- thick, light yellow- or gray-green. Inflorescence: heads radiate, in groups of 2--4, crowded in flat-topped cyme-like clusters generally 3--5 cm wide; involucres obconic-cylindric, +- 5 mm, < 3 mm wide; phyllaries 7--12, ovate, +- white or pale green; receptacle flat, pitted, epaleate. Ray Flower: 1--2; ray barely exceeding involucre, 2- or 3-toothed, yellow. Disk Flower: 3--7, staminate; corolla narrowly funnel-shaped, sinuses deep, lobes reflexed, style-branch appendages lanceolate to rounded. Fruit: ray fruit <= 3 mm, hairy; pappus of 15--20 stout bristles fused at base, generally 1 mm; ovary of disk flower <= 1 mm, glabrous; pappus of 25 flattened, twisted bristle-like scales generally <= 3 mm.
Note: Varieties not known to intergrade. Phylogenetic studies by Roberts & Urbatsch 2004 Syst Bot 29:199--215, suggest that Amphipappus and some other small genera should be merged into Chrysothamnus.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil & Meredith A. Lane
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Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil & Meredith A. Lane 2017. Amphipappus fremontii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 22, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 22, 2017.

Amphipappus fremontii var. spinosus
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Amphipappus fremontii var. fremontii
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© 2005 James M. Andre
Amphipappus fremontii var. fremontii
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© 2009 Steve Matson
Amphipappus fremontii var. spinosus
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© 2003 James M. Andre
Amphipappus fremontii
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© 2010 Aaron Schusteff
Amphipappus fremontii var. spinosus
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Amphipappus fremontii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Amphipappus fremontii:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.