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Silene laciniata subsp. californica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CaryophyllaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINK FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often +- connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1--many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, +- free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2--several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2--5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2--3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely +- dehiscent), generally sessile.
Genera In Family: 83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). Note: Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5--8.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald L. Hartman & Richard K. Rabeler, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: SileneView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb, +- erect, from caudex, taproot, or rhizome; rarely dioecious. Leaf: petioled or not; linear to oblanceolate, vein 1. Inflorescence: generally terminal, open to dense; flowers few to many, pedicels generally 5--40+ mm. Flower: generally erect, generally bisexual; sepals 5, fused, tube prominent, 4--38 mm, 2--13 mm diam, cylindric to bell-shaped, rounded, hairs various or 0 (walls between hair cells generally clear), veins generally 10+, generally dark, lobes or teeth 1--13 mm, < tube, triangular to linear; petals 5, 6--62 mm, claw long, limb entire or 2--6-lobed, appendages at junction of claw, limb 0--6, generally 2, basal lobes present or 0; stamens generally fertile, bases fused with petal bases to ovary stalk; ovary chamber 1 or +- incompletely 3--5, styles 3(4,5; if 5 then flowers unisexual, taxon dioecious), 1--35 mm. Fruit: capsule, cylindric to ovoid; stalk (from ovary stalk) 0--7 mm, generally glabrous; teeth 6 or 10, ascending to recurved. Seed: many, gray to red, brown, or black.
Species In Genus: 700 species: North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, introduced +- worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: probably from mythological Silenus, intoxicated foster-father of Bacchus, who was covered with foam; from sticky secretions of many species) Note: Oxelman et al. (2001 Nordic J Bot 20: 743--748) including data for disarticulation of Silene into four additional genera, including for California Lychnis (Lychnis coronaria) and Atocion (Atocion armeria (L.) Raf., as Silene armeria here).
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler & Dieter H. Wilken
Species: Silene laciniataView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 20--70 cm; caudex branches 0--few. Stem: +- prostrate, reclining, or decumbent, +- puberulent to glandular-puberulent. Leaf: +- reduced upward, lower sometimes withering, 1--10 cm, 2--25 mm wide; lower oblanceolate to ovate, withering or not; upper +- linear or widely lanceolate to ovate. Flower: ascending to erect; calyx 12--26 mm, glandular-puberulent, faintly 10-veined, lobes 3--6 mm; petal claw glabrous to ciliate, appendages 2, limb 6--15 mm, bright red, lobes 4--6; stamens +- exserted; styles 3, generally exserted. Fruit: oblong to ovoid; stalk 2--4 mm, glabrous to puberulent. Seed: 1--2.5 mm, red-brown.
Note: See Morton 2005 FNANM 5:189 for discussion of inclusion of Silene californica.
Unabridged Note: 1 other subsp., Arizona to Texas, Mexico.

Silene laciniata subsp. californica (Durand) J.K. Morton
Leaf: widely lanceolate to ovate. Fruit: ovoid. Seed: 2--2.5 mm, red-brown. Chromosomes: 2n=48,72.
Ecology: Chaparral, oak woodland, conifer forest, serpentine or not; Elevation: < 2200 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN, CCo, SnFrB, n SCoRO, SCo, WTR (n slope), w SnGb, PR; Distribution Outside California: Mexico. Flowering Time: Spring--summer Note: Plants from Teh, WTR, western SnGb intermediate to (and sometimes difficult to separate from) Silene laciniata subsp. laciniata.
Synonyms: Silene californica Durand
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler & Dieter H. Wilken
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botanical illustration including Silene laciniata subsp. californica


Citation for this treatment: Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler & Dieter H. Wilken 2017. Silene laciniata subsp. californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 30, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 30, 2017.

Silene laciniata subsp. californica
click for enlargement
© 2002 George W. Hartwell
Silene laciniata subsp. californica
click for enlargement
© 2002 Christopher L. Christie
Silene laciniata subsp. californica
click for enlargement
© 2002 George W. Hartwell
Silene laciniata subsp. californica
click for enlargement
© 2002 Christopher L. Christie

More photos of Silene laciniata subsp. californica in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Silene laciniata subsp. californica:
NW, CaR, SN, CCo, SnFrB, n SCoRO, SCo, WTR (n slope), w SnGb, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.