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Volutaria muricata
MOROCCO KNAPWEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: VolutariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual. Stem: erect, openly branched. Leaf: basal and proximal cauline winged-petioled, mid and distal cauline sessile; entire to dentate or pinnately divided, long-soft hairy, minutely glandular. Inflorescence: heads disciform or radiant, long-peduncled, 1 or in few-headed cyme-like cluster; involucre ovoid, phyllaries many, graduated in 5+ series, appressed, ovate to lanceolate, entire or minutely spiny-toothed, acute, tapered smoothly to an ascending to reflexed, +- flattened spine at tip; receptacle flat, epaleate, bristly. Flower: corolla white or pink to purple [blue, yellow, or orange]; outer flowers sterile, corolla enlarged and spreading or inconspicuous and erect, lobes 5(6), linear; inner flowers bisexual, tube slender, throat narrowly cylindric, lobes linear-oblong, anther bases tailed, tips lanceolate, style tip with +- hairy node and short, linear terminal segment. Fruit: +- barrel-shaped or obconic, weakly compressed, 10-ribbed, tip with prominent collar, attachment scar lateral within cavity with hard rim; pappus persistent, of several series of narrow scales, white to tan.
Species In Genus: 16 species: Mediterranean, western Asia, Atlantic islands, northeastern Africa. Etymology: (Latin: having twist, for spirally coiled corolla lobes of original sp.) Note: Volutaria canariensis added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil

Volutaria muricata (L.) Maire
NATURALIZED
Stem: <= 5 dm. Leaf: proximal oblanceolate, +- dentate to deeply lobed, distal smaller, linear, +- entire or lobed, faces with soft, jointed hairs, minutely gland-dotted. Inflorescence: heads generally solitary; peduncle 5--15 cm, distally leafless, finely cobwebby-tomentose, especially near tips; involucre 15--18 mm, 10--15 mm diam, phyllaries in 5--7 series, minutely spiny-toothed, finely cobwebby-hairy, outer and middle ovate, dark-margined, with spine tip 3--5 mm, inner lanceolate, with flattened, +- spineless tips. Flower: corolla of sterile flower 25--30+ mm, exserted from involucre; corolla of fertile flower 13--14 mm, tube 5--6 mm, throat 2--4 mm, lobes 5--6 mm. Fruit: +- 3 mm, pale gray-brown, glabrous, faces pitted; pappus scales unequal, 1--2.5 mm, irregularly toothed, outer < inner. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Disturbed sites; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Europe, northwestern Africa. Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: Probable escape from cultivation; becoming problem weed on immediate coast.
Synonyms: Centaurea muricata L.; Cyanopsis muricata (L.) Dostál
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil
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Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil 2016. Volutaria muricata, Revision 2, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=82516, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 06, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Volutaria muricata:
SCo;
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.